The Celtic Literature Collective

The Life of Saint Cadog

Here begins the Preface to the Life of the most blessed Cadog, who also is Sophias, bishop and martyr of the Beneventan monastery.

Formerly within certain borders of the Britannic country, which was called Dyfed, there reigned a certain regulus, Glywys by name, from whom throughout all the days of his life the whole monarchy of that district took the name of Glywysing. He is said to have begotten ten children, of whom the first-born was called Gwynllyw, from whose name too after the death of his father that country which he ruled is called Gwynlliog to the present day. His brothers as being of gentle birth and good disposition peacefully and carefully in accordance with natal custom divided their father’s kingdom among themselves according to their number, to each one his own province, except Pedrog only the third son, who rejected a transitory heritage for a perpetual one. Their names with the provinces pertaining to them are these. The first-born, Gwynllyw, of course, chooses the principal seat of his father’s kingdom, to wit, Gwynlliog, whilst Etelic obtained Etelicchion; Poul, Pennichen; Seru, Seruguunid; Gurai, Gurinid; Mar, Margan; Cettil, Chettgueli; Cornouguill, Cornoguatlaun; Metil, Crucmetil. Pedrog alone of them received no part with them, since indeed, rejecting altogether the vanities and momentary allurements of this world, he took after the example of the holy fathers to despising mundane for celestial things, to adhere closely to God, and at length to abandon native land, brothers, and all worldly affairs. As a pilgrim too he arrived at last by the will of God in the land of the Cornishmen in the district, which is called Bodmin, and there for the whole of his life he served God most devotedly. Moreover a very great monastery is built there in his honour and his festival is solemnly kept, like the chief solemnities.

Here ends the Preface.

Here begins the Prologue to the Life of the same Saint.

After a long interval of time the aforesaid king Gwynllyw, depending now on his kingdom, desired with ardent affection on account of the excessive sweetness of her fame that a certain girl should be joined to him in lawful wedlock, born of most noble lineage, of elegant appearance, very beautiful moreover in form, and clad in silk raiment, whose name was Gwladus, the daughter of a certain regulus, who was called Brychan. Accordingly he sent very many messengers to the virgin’s father to the end that they might more resolutely demand that she might be given to him as wife. But the father of the girl, having received the message, was indignant, and, full of anger, refused to bestow his daughter on him, and slighted the messengers, and dismissed them without honour. They, taking this very badly, returned, and told their lord what had been done to them. When he had heard, the king, raving with excessive fury, armed with all possible speed three hundred of his young men to take the aforesaid girl by force. Then starting at once on their journey, when they reached the court of the aforementioned regulus, which is called Talgarth, they found the said virgin sitting with her sisters before the door of her chamber and at leisure in modest conversation, whom they immediately took by force, and beat a hasty retreat. When this was known, her father, Brychan, moved by grief of heart, sorrowing inwardly at the loss of his beloved daughter, called to his aid all his friends and his subjects to recover his daughter. When all his helpers had assembled together, with rapid steps he follows up the enemy and his confederates. Gwynllyw, when he had seen them, ordered that the oft-mentioned girl should be brought up to him, and he made her ride with him. He, carrying the girl cautiously with him on horseback, preceded the army not indeed for flight, but to await his soldiers and to exhort them manfully to war. But Brychan with his men, boldly attacking the savage king and his satellites, slew two hundred of them and followed them up as far as the hill, which is on the confines of either country, which in the Britannic tongue takes the name Boch Rhiw Cam, which means the cheek of the stony way. But when Gwynllyw had arrived at the borders of his land, safe in body with the aforesaid virgin, although sorrowful at the very great slaughter in the fight with his adversaries, lo, three vigorous champions, Arthur with his two knights, to wit, Cai and Bedwyr, were sitting on the top of the aforesaid hill playing with dice. And these seeing the king with a girl approaching them, Arthur immediately very inflamed with lust in desire for the maiden, and filled with evil thoughts, said to his companions, ‘Know that I am vehemently inflamed with concupiscence for this girl, whom that soldier is carrying away on horseback.’ But they forbidding him said, ‘Far be it that so great a crime should be perpetrated by thee, for we are wont to aid the needy and distressed. Wherefore let us run together with all speed and assist this struggling contest that it may cease.’ But he, ‘Since you both prefer to succour him rather than snatch the girl violently from him for me, go to meet them, and diligently inquire which of them is the owner of this land.’ They immediately departed and in accordance with the king’s command inquired. Gwynllyw replies, ‘God being witness, also all who best know of the Britons, I avow that I am the owner of this land.’ And when the messengers had returned to their lord, they reported what they had heard from him. Then Arthur and his companions being armed they rushed against the enemies of Gwynllyw and made them turn their backs and flee in great confusion to their native soil. Then Gwynllyw in triumph through Arthur’s protection together with the afore­said virgin Gwladus, reached his own residence, which was situated on that hill, which thenceforward took from his name the British appellation Alit Wynllyw, that is, Gwynllyw’s Hill. For from Gwynllyw is named Gwynlliog, and Brycheiniog from Brychan.

Here begins the Life of the same Saint. January 24th.

§1. Of the angelic revelation and the birth of saint Cadog.
All these things therefore being done, king Gwynllyw joined to himself in lawful wedlock the aforesaid daughter of Brychan, named Gwladus, who conceived; and, wonderful to relate, every night from the hour of her conception four lights were seen shining with fiery splendour in the four corners of the house in which she stayed, until she brought forth her first-born son. And in this it is beyond question manifest to all that the infant was really elected by God from his mother’s womb according to that prophecy of Isaiah the prophet, ‘From thy mother’s womb have I chosen thee’, and in another place, ‘From my mother’s belly the Lord bath called me.’

One night some of Gwynllyw’s brigands arrived for loot at a certain town, in which dwelt a certain religious Irish hermit, Meuthi by name, who served God very devotedly, inasmuch as the aforesaid Gwynllyw was very partial to thieves, and used to instigate them somewhat often to robberies. But that hermit possessed no worldly goods except one cow in calf, the best of all in that province, by whose abundance of milk the hermit himself and his twelve ministers were sufficiently supplied; which cow the aforesaid thieves vilely stole. In that night also wherein this crime was committed, Gwladus the wife of the oft-mentioned king, brought forth her first-born son. Also the same night a voice was uttered from heaven in sleep to the infant’s father, saying, ‘By God’s will a certain holy presbyter and anchorite will come to thee to-morrow at daybreak, whom receive humbly and reverently when thou seest him, and earnestly with genuflexion beseech him that he may cleanse thy son in the layer of regeneration, and his name whereby he will be called will be Cadfael. And when he shall have completed the seventh year of his age surrender him to that same regenerator that he may be directed in his learning.’ Also that night an angel of the Lord likewise appeared to this venerable presbyter, saying to him, ‘Arise quickly, gird thyself, and put on thy shoes, for thy cow has been taken away by thieves; wherefore hasten to track her down. When thou comest to the court of king Gwynllyw, there thou wilt discover her without doubt. But rather hasten by God’s command to baptize the son of that king, by whom thy cow is detained. And then after he is seven years old, instruct him in the writings of the Holy Scriptures.’ And so the aforesaid king the same night narrated to his wife Gwladus all the things which he had dreamed, before the aforesaid hermit had arrived thither, and therewith cheered her not a little. And indeed the following day the afore­said priest, accompanied by disciples, started out early in the morning with the help of God to obtain his cow to the chamber wherein the king had lain down to sleep, but entered not, as the savage doorkeepers withstood him. When this was discovered by the king, he is speedily allowed to enter, the cow which he had lost being restored to him, and is warmly welcomed. For the king looked at him, and knew at once that he was the servant of God, who had been revealed to him by divine oracle, and bending down very earnestly with downcast eyes besought the man of God to baptize his son in the layer of salvation. He, complying with the entreaties of his enemy, baptized the boy in accordance with the angelic command, agreeably to that saying of the Lord, ‘Love your enemies. Do good to them who hate you, and pray for those who persecute and revile you, that ye may be sons of your Father, who is in heaven.’ So the man of God took the boy and, accompanied according to the custom of the ancients by the whole household, proceeded to running waters. But in the administration of this baptism divine power deems it worthy to show by a wonderful omen how great the boy was to be. For when the man of God, Meuthi, would baptize the son of the aforesaid king, the servants of the king, fatigued with a long journey through lack of water, discuss in complaining voice in the hearing of Meuthi, attesting that they carry water on their shoulders from afar every day. Meuthi answers them, ‘Let us all pray our Lord Jesus Christ to bestow flowing water on us his servants and on this babe chosen by himself from its mother’s womb.’ And when the prayer was ended, a large fountain broke out in a dry place, which gushing forth very copiously made a river. This being done, and all the people exulting and praising God, the blessed Meuthi made reply, ‘The flow of the stream makes glad the city of God.’ Moreover, when a certain woman carried the tiny boy in her arms to that holy well, which by the prayers of the aforesaid holy hermit lately broke out of the ground, in order that he might be baptized, he leaping up from the arms of her who bore him in three leaps flew to the aforesaid well without conveyance of any one and dipped himself thrice in the water in the name of the Holy Trinity, which miracle the Divine benevolence performed to promulgate the innate grace of the child according to that word of the Psalmist, ‘God is wonderful in his saints.’ The three leaps of that infant denote the mystic number of the Holy Trinity, that is, the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, whose service he continually with all his might brought to effect, studying daily to ascend from virtue to virtue that he might merit to see the God of gods in Zion. When the blessed Meuthi saw him leaping by himself, the sooner did he with more cheerful mind rejoicing baptize the same in that holy well, and according to the angelic precept imposed on him the name of Cadfael.

§2. Of cellars filled by God’s will with a supply of honey and milk.
When the time for bringing forth had come, the holy mother, called Gwladus, gave birth to the holy boy, at whose nativity the cellars were found filled with milk and honey, as if prepared to supply a banquet, for during the three previous days they had been entirely emptied at the royal expense. Wherefore the holy mother of the saint, giving thanks to God for his favours, ordered the gifts of Christ to be divided among the poor.

§3. Of the increase of goods.
On which wonder there followed a greater wonder, for by so much the more that the cellars were emptied, the more they filled with abundance of goods.

§4. How the boy Cadog is handed over to saint Meuthius.
The infant, therefore, having been born again by the grace of baptism, the aforesaid presbyter, according to the custom of those who baptize, consigned him back to his parents, saying, Joy fully receive this infant purified by me by angelic command in the layer of salvation, and for the space of seven years keep him from all hurtful things, and, when these things are done, arrange for him to be instructed in sacred literature.’ When these things had been fully heard, the father of the boy says to the holy presbyter ‘To thee before all the doctors of Britannia do I entrust my son, that, when the prescribed cycle of years is done, thou mayest instruct him in liberal arts and divine doctrines, because thou art a true worshipper of God and a profound teacher of very many disciples.’ To these things saint Meuthi replies, ‘All the things which thou shalt enjoin me concerning this boy, I will the more willingly bring to effect, God willing.’ These things being done, as said, saint Meuthi, having received the afore said cow, returned, rejoicing, to his own abode.

§5. Of the boy’s religious piety and his admonition of his father’s household.
In the meantime the blessed child grew in age and wisdom and disbursed to the poor the whole of what goods came to his hands And although a child of royal birth, he despised the pomp of royal apparel, for he frequented the church every hour in mean raiment who, when invited to a dinner or supper, said, ‘Christ is my food and he is my drink.’ Yet at night he took a little bread and water, entirely rejecting more sumptuous foods. Satisfied with this nourishment, he would be refreshed as by a banquet of divers foods. He had a countenance cheerful, plump, and jocund. And whilst his father’s household went to join in a game of dice he would always resort to the church with gay step, to whom, when they urged him to the game, he would say, ‘O blind mind of men ever to seek transitory things and look to earthly things! See ye what ye might be and what ye have become? Know ye not that the day of the Lord will come when mourning will be turned into joy, and laughter will be turned into mourning?’ And while he proclaimed these things, a great part of his hearers used to grieve, answering, ‘What means this religion of our son? We were expecting the increase of the kingdom from him, who by his preaching destroys our household. Let us force him to warfare, because he knows better than us how to rule the people.’ When this was told the boy he exclaimed with hands uplifted to heaven, ‘Free me, Lord Jesus Christ, from this danger. I am already desirous not to rule but to serve. Send me whither thou wilt for I will not now visit the threshold of my father.’ Wherefore, because God provided that he should be a ruler of the Church, God gave him the knowledge of the Scriptures. And although it makes many to be proud, knowledge did not puff him up, but the more he excelled others in wisdom, the more he humbled himself before all. Nor is it to be wondered at, since nothing was done by him for which he could be blamed. For he loved all, he offended none, he honoured all and was honoured by all, he blessed all and was blessed by all

§6. Of the water, which suddenly sprang up for the boy’s baptism, being turned into mead.
But we have thought it should by no means be passed by in silence what the divine mercy willed to do to make manifest the innate grace of the oft-mentioned boy with regard to the afore­said fountain wherein saint Cadfael, who also is Cadog, was baptized. In the first year after the baptism of saint Cadog, as is related by the more learned elders of the Britons, it was turned both in taste and colour, into mead. In fact in the second year through out the whole year it preserved a milky colour and sweetness Therefore if any dwellers in that country, wherein that fountain gushed forth from the earth for their use on account of the prayer of the aforesaid hermit and the love of saint Cadog, should drink of the same, it would never fail nor lose its sweetness But when a very great dispute and dissension arose between unjust heirs, so that on account of that fountain they fought one another the more dreadfully, and a very great slaughter of them had been effected, to wit, a hundred men of the rural army being slain and many wounded, the rest at length returned to their own homes with bloody clothes and horses. Therefore God, the bestower of all I good things, who by this fountain deigned to show benevolence to: the people of that province for the love of holy Cadog, and through their wickedness and wrongdoing having been displeased and provoked, made the water of the aforesaid spring to return to its natural tastelessness according to that word of Moses, ‘I will hide my face’, saith the Lord, ‘from them, and I will see the end of them.. For it is a perverse generation, and they are unbelieving children.’ So when the space of seven years was over, all the allurements, of this world being despised, the boy Cadog voluntarily with the consent of his parents surrendered himself for instruction to his pious baptizer (or regenerator), Meuthius, to be imbued with sacred literature and liberal training. And he, joyfully receiving him in accordance with the angelic command, instructed him assiduously in Donatus and Priscian and also diligently in other arts for twelve years. As soon, therefore, as Cadog of pious memory passed through the age of childhood, he began to be greatly devoted to God and to strive with all his might for the: land of everlasting life; overcoming his youth with good habits, he applied his mind to no pleasure. For it is believed that that saying of the Evangelist concerning the boy, Jesus, might not unworthily be said also of this his servant, ‘The boy grew and waxed strong, and the Spirit of God was with him.’

§7. Of the punishment of the rustic, who refused to give fire to the boy Cadog.
One day, their hearth being cold, the aforesaid presbyter bade his disciple, Cadog, to fetch fire to cook the food. He, obeying his master s command without question, went immediately to a threshing-floor, or winnowing place for corn, where in that hour was a servant of his teacher, Tidus by name, drying oats, and demanded of him firmly that he would give him fire for the master’s need. But that boorish rustic, rejecting his petition, refused to give him any, unless he would carry the burning coals in his cloak. He, trusting in the Lord and taking the coals of fire in his garment, brought them to his instructor with clothing unconsumed. But it is not meet to be held back that that rustic the. more speedily realized a punishment worthy of his obstinacy. For the boy in returning looked back at the rustic, and with eyes raised to heaven besought the Lord, saying, ‘I beseech thee, God, almighty Father, Maker of heaven and earth, who givest to thy servants on earth the power of treading on scorpions, making poisons harmless, putting demons to flight, giving sight to the, blind, cleansing lepers, healing the sick, taming savage sinners, and subduing the impious, receive into thy ears my prayers, that, that rustic may, by the kindling of his own fire-brands, with the threshing-floor and grain be burnt together, and that his threshing-floor may be cursed by God, so that none other after his death may use it for ever, and that his progeny may be subject to other folks. I do not, O Lord, by these entreaties, so supplicate thy goodness that I should wish the aforewritten sinner to be condemned in his wickedness, since the Lord says, “I will not the death of a sinner, but rather that he should be converted and live.” And Paul, “Not rendering evil for evil, nor cursing for cursing, but contrariwise blessing”; but that the divine virtue and power might be made manifest in this world to the wicked, and that they might the more fear thee, and that they might shrink from resisting those who minister to thee, as it is read in Daniel, “Let all who inhabit the earth fear the God of Daniel, because he is a Deliverer and Saviour, performing wonderful things in heaven and in earth.” The supplication finished, and he looking back, lo, the threshing-floor anathematized by him together with the boorish villein mentioned above is fired and utterly burnt. In that place too where that threshing- or winnowing-floor was situated, a horrid fountain arose after its burning in memory of this divine vengeance, which, causing there a black bog, remains to this day in memory (or record) of that event. The docile boy, Cadog, as soon as he returned, threw out the coals of fire from his unburnt cloak under the eyes of his master. These things being done as related, the senior says to him, ‘Beloved pupil, elect servant of God, it is not allowed me to teach thee longer.’ When this was heard, he, being a youth of good disposition, fearing lest by chance he had incurred by some fault the indignation of that teacher, said, exclaiming with a groan, ‘As thou art more than angry with me and thy wrath is kindled against me like fire, have I so far been disobedient to thee in word or deed, or have I been an accuser and tale-bearer among the brethren?’ Meuthius answering says, ‘By no means, but as is read in the Gospel concerning the centurion who asked Christ to heal his boy, “He said to him, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldst enter under my roof”; and elsewhere Peter, “Depart from me, teacher, because I am a sinful man.” And so I am not worthy that thou shouldst dwell with me longer under my roof, and that thou shouldst receive instruction from me, for thy wisdom exceeds my knowledge, and thy innocence surpasses my prudence, and thou art holier than I am in all respects. Therefore with the divine protection and my blessing, angels accompanying thee everywhere, go prosperously whereever thou dost determine.’ Then the sacred Meuthius after Cadog’s departure considering the above-mentioned sacred fire, since he dared not in any wise make use of it, went and hid it, as precious treasure, buried in the cemetery. From that day till the time of king Howel ab Owain, king of the Morgannwg folk, that place was known to all, where the sacred fire had been hidden by saint Meuthius, and the divine compassion was wont to confer health on all who arrived thither with their cattle smitten with various calamities, until that a certain ill-disposed person, envying the bounty of God conferred on men in the health-bearing fire, that it might not heal the disease of any, unhappily destroyed place and fire by denial. Then till now fire and place have remained unknown, affording health to no man.

§8. Concerning the departure of Cadog from his teacher, and the smiting of the swineherd who intended to strike him.
Therefore saint Cadog, departing sorrowfully from his oft-mentioned instructor, sought diligently with frequent groans a place suitable for the service of God, nor was he long frustrated in his wish. He came at length to a certain valley covered with thorns and thistles. There weariness had compelled him to rest a little beneath the shade of an apple-tree. But the swine feeding in that place, being frightened on seeing him, fled at a rapid pace to the swineherd. And when he observed the pigs in a state of terror, he rose excitedly, full of anger, taking up his spear and searching in every direction like a robber to see who or what was terrifying his pigs. Whence it happened that he came up to the place where saint Cadog was praying by the roots of the aforesaid tree, and having seen him and thinking that he was a thief, he tries with right hand uplifted to pierce him with the point of his lance. But God, seeing from on high the wickedness of the swineherd, caused his extended arm at once to stiffen, so that he could neither draw it to him nor henceforth extend it, and immediately he lost the sight of both eyes. Thus without any doubt the venerable Cadog laudably escaped, by the will of God, the danger and the madness of the raging swineherd. The swineherd, calling out in woeful tones, and feeling his way to the ground with feet and left hand, knew by this injury to his limbs that Cadog was a servant of God, whom he in ignorance willed to slay, and addresses him in wretchedness after this manner, 'I beseech your piety with earnest prayers that for the ineffable mercy of God thou loosen me, with my wretched limbs, confined by divine vengeance in bodily bonds, and concede to my blindness the light withdrawn.’ To these words saint Cadog replies, ‘Health is not granted to thee by God before that thou comest to thy master, to wit, Paul Penychen.’ But he, ‘Consider, most faithful servant of God, how I am deprived of the sight of both eyes, and how my miserable body is tied together as with iron chains. Wherefore I cannot proceed hence anywhere.’ To which Cadog said, ‘Believe only that with God all things are possible in heaven and in earth.’ And he replies, ‘Sir, I believe.’ And again the blessed man says to him, ‘He, who opened the eyes of one born blind, and raised Lazarus after four days from the tomb, the same will open thine eyes, and will bestow most rapid healing on all thy limbs in the presence of thy master and his retainers. Also I charge thee that, when thou tellest thy master what things have been done to thee by God through me, and the sight of thy eyes is recovered, thou salute him on my behalf, and that thou carefully ask him to come to me speedily, that I may acquire the sight of him and his conversation, for he is my uncle.’ Having heard these things, the blind and unhappy man immediately arose, doubting naught as to the health promised him through God’s mercy, and with tottering step by God’s guidance proceeds unaccountably to the gate of the court, wherein his master dwelt, which in British is called Nant (that is, river) Paul, and, beating the doors with his blind forehead, he calls the doorkeepers with a loud voice, and tearfully begs admittance. The janitors seeing him, and pitying his calamity, anxiously inquire how he had lost his sight and whence such an infirmity had occurred to him. But he, keeping silent and making no reply, enters into the hail of his master, and standing by him told him clearly all the things which had been done by God through saint Cadog or had been said by him. When he had not yet quite finished his words, his blindness is expelled and his original sight is restored, scales as of a fish falling from his eyes, and to his withered right hand was restored the virtue of natural strength. These things being heard and seen, the aforesaid Paul greatly wondering, and joyfully with exultation receiving the command of the man of God, and thinking that saint Cadog would prefer temporal glory and an earthly kingdom to the service of God, immediately clothed himself in a more expensive style of garments, and went with gladness accompanied by twelve picked soldiers at the guidance of the aforementioned swineherd to the man of God, and found the same praying beneath the shade of the aforesaid apple-tree. And not only he himself but also all his comrades alighting immediately from his horses, fall down at the feet of the blessed Cadog, and address him with such words as these, ‘We return due thanks to God for thy happy arrival, and will rejoice exceedingly if, setting aside the service of religion, thou dost promise that thou wilt have the royal sceptre bestowed on thee, as befits thy dignity, since indeed thou art the principal heir of this kingdom, and the rights of the whole kingdom belong to thee, and all of us will be subject to thy rule.’ To which saint Cadog, ‘I will by no means abandon the service of divine religion for the delights of the deceitful world, nor will I prefer earthly things to heavenly, nor will I despise things eternal for things momentary, but a site for a single hut of all thy land will suffice me.’ The subregulus answers him, ‘I thought thou wouldst ask for very great gifts, but now thou dost request the smallest. Wherefore choose and take a site in accordance with thy desire.’ To whom the blessed man utters these words, ‘It wearies me to traverse the diverse parts of this solitude. This valley, not a little removed from human habitation, do I choose to dwell in before all others, and here with my clerical companions I think it worth while to serve God devotedly, according to that word of the Psalmist, “This is my rest for ever, here will I dwell, for I have chosen it.”’ These things accomplished in this manner, and the habitation asked for having been willingly granted to the blessed Cadog, the aforesaid subregulus returned to his own. The venerable man, therefore, with his clergy passed the following night in prayers to God, that he would tell them of a place for building, and that, tearing up the bushes, he would make it level. For in that valley there was no dry ground, but a festering marsh, producing nothing besides a thicket of reeds full of all sorts of reptiles and snakes, except the ambit of a single bush, under which a large boar of white colour had its windings, and in the middle of the same bush on top a swan was wont to nest every year. When the venerable hero had ended his prayer, lo, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, ‘Thy prayer has been heard by the Lord. Therefore, rising early at dawn, thou wilt find a place for building an oratory, levelled and cleared. And when thou shalt walk thereon, thou wilt perceive a white boar, bristly and of great age, leap out, frightened at the sound of thy footsteps, and there shalt thou lay the foundation of thy temple in the name of the Holy Trinity. Then, where the boar again stops, thou shalt build a dormitory, and then, where he makes a third stop in his course, thou shalt construct thy refectory.’ Saint Cadog rising early saw, in accordance with the revelation of the angel, all the rough and bushy places which had been levelled thoroughly by God’s direction. So the venerable man came as the angel bade to the aforesaid bush in the midst of the cleared valley, and at the sound of his approach he saw a singular big boar rise up, and a swan of white colour flying away, driven from its nest by fear. The boar stops its course not far from the afore-noted thicket, and, looking back at saint Cadog as if to mark the spot, it proceeds a little farther, and again, continuing its course a little, stopped. Therefore the blessed man marked the three stations of the boar by the fixing of three twigs. Then in the first station he built a notable little monastery of timber, in the second a refectory, and in the third a dormitory.

§9. How the man of God built his first monastery.
After this miracle is made known to all the Britons of the western parts, there eagerly flowed together from various districts of the whole of Britannia very many clerics to saint Cadog like rivers to the sea, that they might attain to imitate his wisdom and practice; for he always welcomed eagerly all, who steadily toiled in the services of God and paid heed to the divine scriptures. Hence the venerable man began to raise up a huge heap of earth, and to make in the same a very beautiful cemetery dedicated to the honour of God, wherein the bodies of the faithful might be buried round about the temple. Then when the heap was completed, and the cemetery in the same prepared, he made four large foot-paths across four declivities of mountains surrounding his monastery, making passable what was impassable before, following literally and spiritually the teaching of the Gospel, which states, ‘Prepare ye a way for the Lord, make his paths straight.’ Likewise this man of God not only by labouring bodily with his hands converted crooked, uneven, and rough ways into smooth, but also turned the hearts of many, rough and perverse with divers errors, into the straight way of the Lord. Also he chose another place for himself, and caused to be thrown up in it from the soil of the earth another round tumulus like a fort, and on the tumulus to be erected what in the speech of the Britons is called Cadog’s Kastil. For he deemed it right to spend his life in the labours of his own hands, fearing to consume in idleness the labours of another, hoping by the stress of present endeavour to pass over to the glory of eternal rest, according to that saying of the Psalmist, ‘Who shall eat the labours of thine hands’, &c. And the Apostle, ‘Let every one of you labour, working with his own hands, that he may have wherewith to contribute to the necessitous.’ And again, ‘Let none of you eat the bread of idleness.’ And, ‘He who labours not, let him not eat.’ Although he was the owner of very many lands, yet in one fertile acre only was he wont to sow grain, which in the language of the natives came to be called Erw Wen (that is, the white acre). Be it also known to all reading and hearing the Life of the pious father Cadog that that acre obtained this venerable name on account of the blessing and the sanctity of the man of God.

§10. How Cadog sailed over to Ireland.
Now it happened on a certain day after a long interval of time that the blessed Cadog spoke to his disciples after this manner, saying, ‘My brethren most beloved, I now burn with ardent longing to sail to Ireland in order to study.’ And they answering say, ‘We know, kind master, that thou wiliest the things that are God’s, and that thou formest thy opinion in accordance with the will of God, for whatever thou shalt ask of him, thou wilt obtain forthwith. For thou thinkest nothing crooked or perverse, but knowest it will be better to meditate continually on the divine scriptures, according to that proverb of the wise man, “Son, acquire learning from thy youth, and thou wilt find wisdom unto grey hairs, and it will be to thee as a father and mother.”’ After this he orders a stout skiff, stopped with pitch, to be prepared for him in a sea harbour, that he might sail safely therein to Ireland. Some disciples of his assembling, break forth into these words, ‘Master, let us follow thee, wheresoever thou goest.’ He says to them, ‘Some of you may start out with me, but let others remain here to keep faithfully my monastery and fort untill come.’ And so it was done. Saint Cadog therefore sailed across the Irish sea, and after a timely prosperous course comes to land. Arriving speedily among the Irish, he busied himself in eagerly searching out and coming to an agreement as to the most distinguished of the teachers of that nation, that he might be perfectly instructed by him in the knowledge of the seven liberal arts. Thirsting vehemently for the streams of learning, he at last fortunately arrived at the principal monastery of that country, which is called Lismor Muchutu. In that place he was joyfully received by the most learned master of that district and the assembly of all the clergy, who for his sanctity and humility surnamed him with the name of the chief saint of that monastery, to wit, Muchutu, where he remained with that principal teacher for three years, until he succeeded in gaining perfection in all western knowledge. Also in the same city they say a monastery was built in honour of saint Cadog.

§11. How Cadog returned home from Ireland.
When, then, the three years had passed, he returned home with very great renown from Ireland accompanied by a numerous throng of Irish clergy and of Britons, among whom are said to have been three religious and very learned men, namely, Finian, Macmoil, and Gnauan, the more famous of the whole band of his disciples, and the most clever of Britons. And when he landed on the British shore, he withdrew with his companions into the parts of Brycheiniog, for he had heard that a certain celebrated rhetorician, of the name of Bachan, had lately arrived from Italy within those borders. When the blessed Cadog heard the report of his knowledge, he wished not a little to be instructed by him in Latinity after the Roman manner. At that time a great famine occurred in the region of Brycheiniog, when the holy man had come to the aforesaid dogmatist. Then saint Cadog humbly asked that he would deign to receive him as a disciple. He answered him, ‘My son, I am ready. But I very much fear lest food may be wanting to thee and thy fellow disciples, and ye be afflicted with hunger.’ These things being heard, the man of the Lord, strongly confiding in the Lord and urgent in his prayers, watered his sorrowful cheeks with tears, that counsel might be given him on these matters by the Giver of all. Wherefore on that very day it happened that a mouse, having come out of its hole, bore quickly in its mouth to the blessed Cadog a grain of corn, and playfully placed it under his eyes on a writing-tablet set before him. The same mouse, going and returning seven times, carried to the servant of God as many grains of wheat. So he gathered those grains and hid them in his writing-roll, apprehending by this token that the divine compassion was nigh to him. At length in like manner laying hold of the little mouse, he tied it by the foot, that he might search diligently into the mystery of this affair. Then, sending for the aforesaid scholastic, he drew out the grains, and related to him the substance of what had been done. Both of them recognizing that a miracle had been disclosed to them by God, and having taken counsel, Cadog sought and received from a certain widow long and fine thread. This being tied to the foot of the mouse, he follows it as it proceeds with the thread relaxed, until that vermin arrives at a certain tumulus, under which was a very beautiful subterranean house, built of old, and filled with clean wheat. And there having soon slipped through a dark hole within, and having quickly returned, it carried back in its mouth one grain, as before, of corn. But who had caused that house to be. made, or who had deposited there wheat of so great a quantity, remains, it is agreed, so far unknown. But most certainly is it known that it was a divine gift granted to the servant of God on account of his necessity and that of his companions, to drive it away. When this was seen saint Cadog, having returned to his master and companions, told them what he had observed, whom the master answers after this manner, ‘By this I know that thou art a true worshipper of God, and art strengthened by him in all thy ways. Wherefore I anxiously desire with all my heart that thou abide with me for the purpose of reading, as long as it shall please thee.’ When the aforesaid servant of God had drained these words into his ears, he rejoiced not a little, saying, ‘If thou commandest it, lord father, we will distribute this, the Lord’s gift of corn, to the poor and hungry folk of this land, lest the judgement of that wise man may deservedly be applied to us, “He who hides away corn is cursed among the peoples, but a blessing rests on the head of those who distribute it.” ‘ Therefore he dwelt with the aforementioned teacher, distributing the corn, bestowed by God, to all indigent persons, to each one according to the measure of his poverty. Moreover, as this miracle was being noised farther abroad throughout the province, the glad report sounded with meet admiration in the ears of Brychan, the grandfather of the blessed Cadog, who gave to the man of God the part of that field, wherein the wheat was found, which is named Llanspyddid, in which place the holy man built a monastery for himself.

§12. Of the return of the blessed Cadog to his principal monastery.
Then the blessed Cadog, when he had perceived that he was effectually imbued with liberal instruction, commending his oratory to his teacher Bachan and some of his followers, returned to his own abode in his dear country, to wit, Llancarfan. Another miracle of the same venerable father is said to have occurred. For when he had returned to his own town of Llancarfan, whence he had long withdrawn, seeing his principal monastery destroyed, and the timber of the roofs scattered rudely over the cemetery, he grieved at the downfall, burning to build it anew with God’s permission. Therefore, all his clergy being summoned, and some workmen, he went with them all to a wood to fetch a supply of timber, except two youths, namely, Finian and Macmoil, who with the leave of the man of God remained that they might have time for reading. Then suddenly the prior, the cellarer, and the sexton coming, scolded them, saying, ‘How long, being disobedient and doing no good, refusing to work with your fellow disciples, will you eat the bread of idleness? Come, hasten to the wood, and bring hither quickly a supply of timber with your comrades.’ They answer and say, ‘Can we draw wagons like oxen?’ Those showed them in derision a couple of stags standing by the wood, and proceed in this wise, ‘See, two very strong oxen are standing by the wood. Go quickly and lay hold of them.’ And they proceeding (or going) quickly, and leaving a book open, owing to their great hurry, where they were sitting, in the open air, ordered the stags in Christ’s name to wait for them, which, immediately forgetting their wildness and gently awaiting them, submit (or lower) their untamed necks to the yoke. They drive them home, like tame oxen, with a great beam attached to the yoke placed on the stags, which scarcely four powerful oxen could draw, and there allow them to return to their pastures detached from the yoke. Saint Cadog, seeing and greatly wondering at this deed, asked them, saying, ‘Who bade you to come over to me, and besides, having left off your reading, to devote yourselves to drawing timber?’ They narrated to him the reproaches of the three afore­mentioned men, who railed at them. He, inflamed with wrath, inflicted on the three aforementioned officers a curse after this manner, ‘May God do this to them, and more also, that those three persons die the worst of deaths, cut off by sword or famine.' Moreover, in that hour wherein these things happened, a shower fell from the sky throughout the whole of that region. Wherefore the man of the Lord asked the aforesaid disciples, where they had left their book. They fearing said, ‘Where we were sitting, employed in reading it, we left it open under the sky, having forgotten it in our great haste.’ The man of’ God, having gone there, found the book entirely uninjured by the rain, and greatly wondered. Therefore that book in memory of the blessed man is called in the British language Cob Cadduc, that is, Cadog’s memory. Also in the same place in honour of saint Finian a chapel is said to be situated, where his book was found dry and free from rain amid whirls of rains and winds. From the aforesaid two stags, yoked after the manner of oxen and drawing a wagon, the principal town of saint Cadog took from the old settlers of Britons the name of Nant Carwan, that is, Stags’ Valley, whence Nancarbania, that is, from ‘valley’ [nant] and ‘stag’ [carw].

§13. How saint David at the bidding of an angel assembled a synod.
In that time, wherein these things were being accomplished (or done), saint David, a true confessor of God and a bishop, shone with great virtues in Britannia, to whom an angel was sent by God, saying to him, ‘Rise, do not tarry, assemble all the clergy, elders, and the better born, and form a synod.’ The blessed David answers him, ‘I am ready at thy bidding to do whatever shall be well-pleasing to the Lord, were I worthy, but there dwells in Glywysing one named Cadog, sprung from the satraps of Britannia, who is much more worthy by birth than myself, more distinguished for sanctity, wiser in understanding, and more skilful in speech for assembling a synod, without whose leave and support I least of all presume to undertake so large a matter.’ To whom the angel, ‘Nay, only fulfil my commands, and fear him not in the least, for in this affair he will in no way thwart thee, since he will straightway be going abroad.’ The rest truly is accomplished (or done) in both instances according to the angelic discourse. Cadog went on a journey, and David after his departure assembled a great synod in the Monastery of Brefi, Llanddewi Frefi.

§14. Of the peregrination of the man of God and the conception of a barren queen through his prayers.
Therefore saint Cadog started out without money and bag, having sure confidence in God, who says, ‘I say unto you, Be not anxious about your life, saying, What shall we eat or what shall we drink, nor for your body what you shall put on’; and again, ‘Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you,’ and so forth. The venerable man proceeded, and is kindly received by all, wherever he arrives. Then, a little after, having crossed the sea, favourable breaths of air swelling up, he lands in the islands of Grimbul. He then goes up to a certain city of that region, in which a certain very rich king was living, whose wife was barren, whom he used to provoke with frequent reproaches, saying, ‘Withdraw from me, for thou art unworthy of a wedded husband, seeing it is agreed that thy womb is cursed of the Lord, since thou bearest no fruit on the earth.’ The queen hearing that saint Cadog had come into the city hastily runs to throw herself in his steps, imploring his kindness with tears after this fashion, ‘I beseech thee, most faithful servant of God, that thou wilt deign to intercede with the Lord for me, thy miserable hand­maiden, and for the distresses of my husband, for I am afflicted with the reproach of sterility, heavier than any sickness.’ The rest of the crowd followed her, wondering much at her journey, all of them as with one mouth together earnestly beseeching the beloved man of God on her behalf. The blessed Cadog says to her, ‘Go in peace. May God grant thee the petition which thou hast asked.’ And she added, ‘O that thy handmaiden might find grace in thine eyes. For if I shall give birth to a son or daughter, I shall deliver him up to the service of God all his days, and I will consign him to thy keeping.’ So the king the same night knew his wife, and the Lord remembered her, who conceived and afterwards in time brought forth a son, and called his name Elli. From there the beloved of God, Cadog, withdrew into Greece, and at length arrived at Jerusalem, where Christ was born and suffered and was buried and rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven. And, as is truly reported, the languages of those nations through which he passed in going and returning, were made known to him by the Lord, and he spoke with diverse tongues like the primitive Church in the time of Christ’s disciples. One day, whilst he was walking about the temple of the Lord, he saw in the cemetery three very beautiful rocks and most suitable for the service of Christ, that is, to make altars, saying, ‘O that these three most comely stones were by God’s will transferred in rapid flight as of birds to my dear monastery.’ After the passing of three years he returned to the aforesaid islands, and there found the boy Ellinus, Eli, whom the aforesaid barren queen after his departure in the meantime had brought forth. The pious Cadog therefore took him and carried him on his shoulders, and, keeping him from every harm, reared and taught him. For he loved him much, above the love of father and mother, because his mother had devoted him to God, and had delivered him to himself to be cared for, since indeed he was a chosen servant of God.

§15. Of a certain satellite who disappeared like smoke from the face of Cadog.
Amalicious lictor, named Caradog Pendiuin, lived in the district of Gwynlliog, a kinsman of the pious Cadog, who for envy after his peregrination murdered his cousin Cynfelyn. When he had discovered that the memorable man had returned home, being terrified with excessive fear, he fled away the faster from his face. Then, as the holy man pursued him, he vanished under his eyes like dust or smoke before the wind, by the will of the Thunderer. Thou was present, O Christ, exercising the power of thy majesty, who in every place exaltest the humble who believe in thee, as it is written, ‘Thy friends, O God, are much honoured’, and so forth. Moreover, after the man of God had returned to his own monastery he perceived, whilst praying devoutly in his monastery, that those three desired rocks, which he had so much longed for before in Jerusalem that they might be conveyed into his temple, were three altars in that place, one of which he gave to Elli, another to Macmoil, but the third he kept for himself.

§16. Of the robbers swallowed up in the earth.
To this miracle another not unlike did the divine power perform to declare the merits of the blessed man. There was a certain chief, named Sawyl, living not far from his monastery, who, full of evil affections, arrived with his accomplices at his abode, and violently took from thence food and drink, both he and all his followers eating and drinking in turn, whilst the clergy groaning at such infamy and shame entered the church, for the monastery at that time happened to lack the presence of the man of God, and devoutly supplicated the Lord for the castigation (or the cutting off) of the invaders. And whilst they were weeping with great lamentation, lo, the holy man arrived suddenly, and diligently inquired of them the cause of so much sorrow. After they had related the reason he says to them with unchanged countenance, ‘Have patience, for patience is the mother of all virtues. Suffer them to steep their hearts in debauchery and drunkenness, so that being drunk they will fall into heavy sleep together. Then, when they are oppressed with sleep, shave off with sharpest razors the half part of their beards and hair as an eternal disgrace against them, and also cut off the lips of their horses and their ears as well.’ And they did as he had bidden them. Then the wretched brigands, having somewhat digested in their sleep the superfluity of what they had consumed, and at length having waked, being stupid with excessive drinking, mount their steeds, and begin their journey immediately. Then the man of God said to his clergy, ‘Let each one of you put on his clothing and shoes to go to meet them, or ye will perish in death, for our enemy will return and will slay us with the sword from the greatest to the least, when he snail perceive that he was mocked by us.’ Therefore they each put on their clothes, and saint Cadog clothed himself with his garment, and there followed him nearly fifty clerics to meet the deadly tyrant with chants and hymns and psalms. And when they ascended a certain mound, Sawyl Benuchel and his satellites descended to meet them. Then before the eyes of the servant of God the earth opened its mouth, and swallowed up the tyrant alive with his men on account of their wickedness, lest they should cruelly murder the man of God with his clergy. And the ditch, wherein they were swallowed up, appears to this day to all passing by, which, always remaining open as a witness of this affair, is not allowed to be closed in by any one. Cadog of good memory and his clergy returned to their own abode with great pomp, glorifying God and singing the Ambrosian hymn ‘Te Deum laudamus,’ and what follows, to the end. When these things were over, the blessed Cadog, the brethren being present, blesses them in this wise, saying, ‘Blessed are you of the Lord, and blessed your speech and counsel. May the Lord grant this privilege and prerogative to you, twelve shavers, who figure in type the number of the twelve Apostles, and to all others who in this district shall hold your place in the future. If judgement and useful counsel should be wanting in the whole of this country, let it be found here with you. If twelve wise ordained men should be wanting, let the counsel of twelve unordained clerics prevail. And if twelve clerics shall not be present, let judgement and counsel be allowed to twelve small boys and girls with unmarried women.

§17. Of the indulgence shown to saint David for having summoned the Synod.
Some of the disciples of the blessed man being gathered together, they said to each other in turn, ‘Who of us dares to disclose to our master what things were done in Britannia by saint David, whilst he was on pilgrimage?’ To this all were silent, nor presumed any one to mention the matter to him. Therefore they cast lots on this affair, and the lot fell on Finnian. Therefore saint Finnian arose from the midst of the brethren, and went forward with great trepidation. He prostrates himself in the footsteps of the man of God, devoutly beseeching that he should not be angry with him. And he insinuated how that a universal synod had been assembled by saint David, whilst he was travelling abroad. Which thing displeased him not a little, and, being incensed with great anger against saint David for such an affront, he continued fasting a day and a night. The same night, too, an angel of the Lord came to him, speaking in words of this kind, ‘I beseech thee not to be angry with thy brother, for as it is read in the Epistle of John, He who hates his brother is a murderer.’ By the angelic intervention in this matter he quite forgave the blessed David his fault. Wherefore the angel added, ‘Because thou hast obeyed my voice, and at my request hast pardoned him who did thee wrong, the Lord thy God will free thy castle full of the souls of men, three times, in the Day of Judgement from eternal penalties. And as many ringlets or tufts as are joined together in thy cowl--as is commonly called a certain kind of garment, which the Irish use out of doors, full of prominent tufts or coils like hair—’so many persons shall be snatched for thy sake from perpetual penalties. Also every Saturday from this night for ever, let one soul be freed from infernal torments for thy love, and all your familiar friends, who shall have died in this place, will be liberated from the sufferings of hell. Moreover, whatsoever thou shalt ask of the Lord, thou shalt obtain.’ Then the blessed Cadog, rejoicing in his fort, rose up and, recounting the angelic promises to his disciples, exclaimed, ‘Praise ye the Lord, ye servants of his, praise the name of the Lord, for his mercy is confirmed upon us, and the truth of the Lord remains for ever.

§18. Of the habitation of saint Cadog in Lent.
In the days of Lent saint Cadog was wont to reside in two islands, namely, Barren, Barry, and Echni, Flatholm. But on Palm Sunday he came to Nantcarfan, waiting there for the Easter service and performing it, feeding daily one hundred clergy, and one hundred soldiers, and one hundred workmen, and one hundred poor persons, with the same number of widows. This was the number of his household, besides servants in attendance and esquires and strangers, also guests, whose number was uncertain and a multitude of whom frequently came to him. Nor is it to be wondered at, for being rich in lands he maintained many, for he was abbot and prince over Gwynlliog after his father from Ffynnon Hen, that is, from the Old Spring, as far as the mouth of the river Rhymi, and he was in possession of the whole territory from the stream Golych as far as the river Naddawan, from Pentyrch straight to the valley of Nantcarfan, that is, from the valley as far as the stream Gurimi, namely the little Rhymi,’ towards the sea.

§19. How the earth swallowed up robbers alive, and of the conversion of saint Illtud.
One day, when saint Cadog sat in his chair, teaching the people, fifty of the soldiers of a certain regulus, to wit, Paul, surnamed Penychen, who with hawks were catching birds, came to him to take food from him willy-nilly, to whom he, as it is said, ordered fifty wheaten loaves to be given, and a measure, that is, a cask full of beer, also a fat grazing sow. All these being taken and carried off by them to the midst of the plain, which is called Medgart, not far from the fort, and, being there deposited, they lay down about the measure of beer in order in the manner of a circle surrounding it, and the pig being cut in pieces to be roasted, they carefully prepared dinner. For there was a certain captain of that guard, Illtud by name, who was absent when they committed this crime, and before whose arrival they by no means presumed to dine. Therefore, while they were waiting for him, and abstaining on that account from the prepared food, behold, suddenly, while Illtud was coming up, but before he had alighted from his horse, the ground unexpectedly breaking under them, in the twinkling of an eye they are submerged in the depth of an abyss, according to that word of David, ‘The earth opened, and swallowed up Dathan, and covered the congregation of Abiram.’ But the food and the measure of beer, which I have referred to above, being conveyed by a divine token to a certain mound, remained inviolate and untouched. Inasmuch as the aforesaid Illtud saw these things with his own eyes, with speedy course falling down at the feet of the blessed Cadog, he told how divine vengeance had destroyed his comrades, to wit, the retinue of the aforesaid regulus, for the injury done to him by them. Indeed, that same lord or officer besought the man of God with earnest entreaties by the name of the divine majesty, that he would bestow on him the monk’s habit, and that he would ennoble him with the marks of divine service, the shaving off of hair and beard. Then he assenting to his prayers, that same officer, earthly warfare being abandoned, and secular weapons being completely renounced, having been made a monk, obeying the teachings of his preceptor with all his might, yielded himself up to the holy works of God. Wherefore it is said,

The ground swallowed them, || never to return to earth;
Illtud believed || when he had seen such acts;
He who had been a soldier, || subduing many strongholds,
Changed his warfare, || seizing the highest crown;
Becoming a monk, || he profited in diverse ways.

So the man of the Lord sent over some youths to bring back the mentioned food and drink, and therewith satisfied as many needy ones as there had been robbers to whom it had formerly been thanklessly surrendered.

§20. Of saint Cadog’s manner of life at the river Neath.
After an interval of time saint Cadog, hearing that about the river Neath there were many places solitary and suitable for hermits, visited them that he might see, and that he might stay in them a little time, and that after his departure he might leave his clergy there. One day when he walked about on (or around) the bank of the Neath, he saw a wild boar lying under a tree. When seen his comrades killed it. Secondly, he beheld bees coming and entering a hollow tree. Thirdly, the nest of a hawk in the top of a tree. Then he sent these three gifts to king Arthfael, who gave leave to the blessed Cadog to inhabit and possess that land. Wherefore said Cadog, 

Here is a boar and a honeycomb, || here a savage hawk;
Fertile that place, || which therefore Cadog esteems; 
They gladden the mind, || that seeks three blessed signs,
They make it joyful; || praising I will praise the Giver.
Why should I not rejoice? || he gave and will give honour. 
Here I will to dwell, || for I perceive things significant;
He willed not further || to extend our steps; 
They indicate, rather || they compel us to abide here;
Boar’s flesh will sustain, || easy to hunters for the seeking;
Sweetness of honey || will provide entertainment for the clergy
A table of winged game caught by a comely foe
Our wholesome fare will be, not sickly, therefore free from sickness.

§21. Of a master-builder raised from the dead by the blessed Cadog.
Also, at another time, when the blessed Cadog had again departed thence, desirous of showing in other places his devout service to God, arriving by the divine will at a certain fort situated by a great stream, which is called Neath, and looking about the place, he ordered that a house of prayer should be built for him there quickly. His workmen, to the number of twelve, having started out to the wood for the purpose of cutting timber to build the oratory, the affair in hand became known throughout the whole region. Whence it happened that a certain Irish stranger, a truly skilful master-builder, driven by poverty, whose name was Llywri, had arrived there with his children, that he might acquire food for himself and his sons by the exercise of his art. Wherefore, being exultantly received by the man of God, he applies himself vigorously to the work together with the remaining twelve workers, all of whom a little after he surpassed in skill and ability. As the other twelve envied him, they wickedly slew him, and his head being amputated, and an enormous stone being tied about his maimed body, they threw it into a certain deep pool. As they were returning home as usual, the sons of the slaughtered work­man, in no wise perceiving their father as customary, wept with lamentable cries. When the blessed man heard the wailing, he quickly inquired the cause of so pitiful a lamentation. The work­men, being sternly brought together concerning these things, excusing themselves with all their might declared with much quibbling that they knew not whither the aforesaid master-builder had gone. When the man of God took knowledge of their iniquity, he with all his clergy passed the night in watch and prayer, that the truth of this matter might be declared to them the same night. When it was morning, prayers being now ended, behold, suddenly, the beheaded worker, bearing his head in his bosom, and carrying a great stone on his back, wet and bloody, of maimed and horrid aspect, appeared to the venerable man and his disciples. Wonderful to relate, but an easy matter with God, the severed head let loose words of this sort, ‘Servant of God, fix me upon the neck in the original position, and I will relate to thee all things which are unknown to thee so far in this matter.’ And he did as he asked. And the murdered workman Llywri told him the dreadful crime of the twelve aforementioned workmen, and how that they, led by envy, had basely butchered him. To whom he replied, ‘Choose what thou dost prefer of two things, whether to live in this mortal life to be again a corpse, or to go back to eternal life to reign for ever with God.’ And he said, ‘Sir, that my soul may return to eternal rest.’ And while he yet spoke, he expired. Therefore the holy man ordered his disciples to place the aforesaid stone, which the murdered master-builder had brought up on his back, upright in the earth near a wood in memory of this miracle, and to bury that same man there before it, and he ordered that from his name the whole of that town be called Llanllywri. Also by means of this stone the Lord heals those who are unable to hold urine, and divers kinds of other diseases, for the love of saint Cadog and Llywri to this day.

§22. Of the dispute between saint Cadog and king Arthur respecting the reinstatement of a certain person.
In that same time a certain very brave leader of the British (or Britons), called Ligessauc, the son of Eliman, also surnamed Llaw hir, that is, Long Hand, slew three soldiers of Arthur, most illustrious king of Britannia. But, Arthur pursuing him everywhere, he nowhere found a safe place, and none dared to protect him for fear of the aforesaid king, until at length, wearied by very frequent flights, he came a fugitive to the man of God. He, bewailing his hardships, the more kindly received him, trusting in the Lord, fearing Arthur not at all, according to that word of the Lord, ‘Fear not those who kill the body, but cannot kill the soul, but rather fear him who is able to cast soul and body into hell.’ Therefore he remained with him in the region of Gwynlliog, Arthur not knowing it, for seven years in security. These being past, he being again betrayed to the aforesaid king, the same arrived at last with a very great force of soldiers at the river Usk, for the sake of making suit (or bringing an action), because he dared not by any means contend forcibly with the man of God. Therefore messengers being directed to the king, the man of God asks of him, if he would refer the dispute (or action) to the verdict of skilful judges. And he assented, for saint Cadog had summoned to him the principal nobles, from three divers parts of the same country, to wit, David and Teilo, Illtud and Dochau, Cynidr and Maeddog, with several other clerics and elders of the whole of Britannia, judges at the same time being added to them, as far as the bank of a very large river, the Usk, [where] they assembled together, he himself preceding them. And there disputing the matter with bitter words, after the manner of enemies from both sides of the river, they contended for a long time on either hand. But after this intermission in the altercation, the more skilful of the judges decreed that Arthur ought to receive for the redemption of each one of his slain men three ‘best oxen’. But others ordained that one hundred cows should be given to him as the worth of the aforesaid men, because from ancient times among the Britons judgement of this sort, and that price, had been determined upon by the ministers of kings and chiefs. This being accepted, Arthur tauntingly refused cows of one colour, but would take parti-coloured ones, that is, with a great deal of shuffling, he desired cows distinguished in their fore part with a red colour and in their hind part with white. And they, being altogether ignorant as to where cattle of this sort of colour were to be found, doubted what plan they should adopt concerning these things. Wherefore the man of God in the name of the Three Persons ordered young men of the council to drive to him nine, or, as some maintain, one hundred heifers, of whatever colour they might be. When the aforesaid animals were brought up before the eyes of him and of the other servants of God, they were immediately changed by the divine power, in accordance with Arthur’s perverse desire, into the aforesaid colours at the benevolent prayer and desire of the righteous. The company of all the clergy and many others of God’s faithful gathered together by that blessed man beholding this miracle, rejoiced with great joy, glorifying God much. Moreover the man of God consulted what rightly he ought to do with the aforesaid cattle. And the group of judges from both sides replied, ‘The law is that thou drive them in a herd to the middle of the ford.’ Therefore he drove them as far as that point and Arthur, Cai, and Bedwyr met them, the rest sitting on the bank. And Cai and Bedwyr eagerly drew them by their horns to the other bank with their hands, but immediately they were in their hands they were in the presence of all transfigured by the divine will into bundles of fern. Arthur, seeing this wonder, humbly asked the blessed man, that the wrong which he had inflicted on him should be forgiven him. He bestowed pardon on him for the fault according to that gospel precept, ‘Forgive, and it shall be forgiven you.’ Therefore the aforesaid king, having entered into counsel with his army, prolonged the period of his refuge for seven years and as many months and the same number of days. If any stranger in the prescribed time desiring to go home from the district of Cadog should depart or set sail to any part of the world, if by chance, the severe violence of storms and unfavorable windy weather assailing him, he should be driven into his harbour, to wit, Barry, and should return anew to the original place of his refuge, he is according to the tradition of elders to be allotted to his service to the last limit of his life and eagerly received. This Arthur and all his captains with the elders of all IBritannia corroborating, they said, ‘We also in the hearing of all bear witness to the words of this ordinance, and whosoever shall transgress them, may God add to him all the plagues written in the Old and New Testament, and may his name be blotted from the book of life. But he who shall keep these, may he be replenished with all the blessings of the Old and New Testament, and may they descend and remain on him, and also may his soul abide in eternal rest.’ The council being finished, all the cows which had been converted into clumps (or bundles) of fern were found safe in their stalls by their owners. For from that day that place in British speech is called Tref redinauc, Tredunnock, that is, fern homestead. Also that ford, about which the pleading (or action at law) took place, is called Rith, Rhyd (that is, ford) Guurtebou, Gwrthebau. Whilst all were withdrawing peaceably from that pleading, saint Cadog gave three homesteads to the three said nobles, one to David, another to Teilo, and a third to Docguinnus, because they were wearied with their long journey. Of which homesteads and possessors their names are written below: to the blessed David, Llanddewi Penn bei; to Teilo, Merthyr Tegfedd; and to Doguuinus he gave Llanddyfrwyr.

§23. Of vengeance on the king of the men of Gwynedd for injury done to the man of God.
Another miracle known to all the Britons living in those parts is asserted of the same holy patron. In his days a certain king, Maelgwn by name, was reigning over all Britannia, who sent his young soldiers to the region of Gwynlliog that they might there receive tribute. These, coming to the house of blessed Cadog’s officer, seizing forcibly a most beautiful daughter of the same, took her away with them. Gwynllyw’s men gathering together pursued them, and destroyed some of those whom they followed, and wounded very many, whilst the rest fled to their lord. Which being done, the aforesaid king, inflamed with much (or, great) furious indignation, and his armies being assembled, they marked out a camp in the region of Gwynlliog by a spring, which in their language is called Finnun (that is, a spring) Brittrou (a proper name), that on the following day they might plunder the whole of that country. Which things being heard, Gwynllyw’s men were not a little terrified, and related the state of affairs to the man of God in these words, ‘Maelgwn, king of the men of Gwynedd (that is, Snowdonians) has descended on our borders with his troops, and this night he is encamped with the whole of his army by the spring Brittrou. For tomorrow he will devastate the whole of thy land, and will slay all the males with furious slaughter. Therefore succour us, feeble, wretched, and unarmed, by arranging a peace with the fierce king, otherwise we die.’ These things being heard, the man of God said to the messenger, ‘Proceed quickly, for we will follow thee.’ He followed the messenger at night with three of the clergy, until they reached Gwynlliog. There met them natives of that same region, terrified with fear of the enemy. With great lamentation they besought him, saying, ‘Sir, aid us, and rescue us for thy great clemency, because, whatever thou shalt ask of God, thou shalt obtain.’ He answered them, ‘Be comforted in the Lord, and stand firm, and do not fear. In God we shall do a wonder, and he will reduce our enemies to nothing.’ Saint Cadog, having great confidence in God, withdrew thence. By the camp of the enemy he prayed apart, his clergy being removed a little from him. When it was morning, he rose from prayer, and behold, a column of mist went before him, which, covering all the tents and the troops of the aforesaid king, beclouded them, and the day became to them as black night, so that none was able to observe another. Then in the midst of the darkness the holy man appeared before the tent of the king, and saluting him says, ‘Good health, 0 king. I beseech thee, if I have found favour in thine eyes, kindly hear my words.’ To whom the king, ‘I am ready, speak’, said he. And the other, ‘Wherefore hast thou come to my country with an armed force to plunder and devastate, especially as we do not deserve it in any way?’ To these things the king, ‘I confess that I have sinned against thee. But still I earnestly beg thy holiness that thou be merciful (or exorable) for this fault, and forgive it me, and that by thy intervention this darkness depart, whereby we may be able to return unhurt to our abodes, and that all thy country remain in constant peace.’ The man of God replied, ‘Thy very great crimes shall be forgiven thee.’ While he was still speaking, lo, the light of summer immediately being poured from above shone with great serenity on the camp. When the king perceived this miracle, rising from his royal chair, he fell on his face, saying, ‘I will confirm and ratify the refuge, which Arthur, the bravest of heroes, bestowed on thee, so that whoever of my progeny shall abbreviate it, let him be accursed, and whoever shall keep it, let him be blessed, and to-day I choose thee to be my confessor, if it shall be wellpleasing to thee, above all others among the men of the South.’ And so it happened. And they returned peaceably each one to his own region.

§24. Of the blinding of King Rhun for the injury inflicted on saint Cadog.
During the flow of some courses of years after these things, Rhun, the son of the aforenamed king Maelgwn, coming from the north with a numerous company of the nation of Gwynedd on an expedition, that he might rob the possessions and treasures of the southern Britons, and utterly lay waste the land, and the whole army being assembled in the presence of Maelgwn, the same strictly bade the aforementioned Rhun, his son, and all the divisions of the whole expedition, that they should not inflict any injury on saint Cadog, because he was his confessor, and that they should not take from any of his land even one beast of smallest value without his permission. ‘And this’, said he, ‘will be a sign to you. When you have come to his country, you will find animals freely feeding in pastures and people trustful and un­terrified, confiding in our friendship, and so from every enterprise of war they are to be entirely exempt, since I and their lord are connected by a familiar and spiritual covenant.’ Then they all promised with an oath that they would observe this command of the king. So when they had come to the borders of Gwynedd, they formed a camp in Cair (that is, city) Trigguid. Whom when the men of Gwynedd had seen, they fled from them frightened, hiding themselves in woods and thickets and holes and caves of the earth. The inhabitants of Penychen, who were beyond the river Naddawan and all of that same region being unterrified remained as they were. Whilst they were driving considerable plunder to the camp, twelve esquires from the king’s troops went off to the river Naddawan to water horses. When they had given their horses to drink, they themselves being thirsty and not able to drink of the tepid water (river), said to one another, ‘Let us ride speedily to Cadog’s barn,’ which is said to have been at that time on the farm Buceles, ‘that there we may drink milk enough, for milk abounds there always.’ Those twelve making their way thither with speed approach the steward of the place roughly with words that he might give them a drink of milk. He, being angry, refused to give to them, saying, ‘Are ye not without understanding, reckoning that at least our master is a man of great honour and dignity, since of a truth he owns a great household, three hundred men in number, to wit, a hundred clergy, and as many soldiers, and workmen of like number, besides children and women?’ Therefore they rose, fuming with great wrath, and all of them individually taking firebrands in their hands, and mounting their steeds, tried to burn that barn. But by the power of God it burned not, only smoked. In the moment of that very hour, whilst the aforesaid Rhun was sitting in his tent playing at dice with his eunuchs (or servants), the smoke like unto a wooden post, proceeding from the barn of saint Cadog, stretched itself right across throughout the morning to his tent, and darkened the light of the eyes of all who were present in that place. But the king, ashamed to mention what had happened to him, incites the eunuchs (or attendants) to play. ‘Play,’ said he. And they reply, ‘Though our eyes be open, we see nothing.’ Then at last the king confessed that it had likewise happened to himself. Then having called to him his captains and all the nobles and knights, he inquires of them, whether by chance any of their companions had inflicted any disgrace on the blessed man. But they entirely disowned the crime. Said the king, ‘Seek diligently in the camp whether any of your fellows have been away today.’ And when they had sought, it was found that twelve esquires had been absent. These being brought forward, the king says, ‘Where have you been to-day, and what evil have you done? Speak out at once, for it is clear to us, that you have this day participated in a great evil.’ Then the esquires confess their guilt. Without delay he caused saint Cadog to come to him, to whom also he said, ‘Be thou blest of the Lord, and may thy entrance be peaceable. For I have sinned against God and before thee.’ And he, ‘What hast thou done, say.’ And he broke forth into words of this sort, ‘Certain of my servants have attacked thy store-house or barn, without my knowledge, to set it on fire, on which account I know that this misfortune of blindness has happened to us. Wherefore I humbly implore thy benignity that thou wilt pardon me, wretched, and that, the blindness of our eyes being expelled, our former clearness of vision may be given back to us by your intercession.’ On saint Cadog praying, they received their former keenness of vision. These things being done, the king added his refuge as Arthur previously and the father of the aforesaid Rhun had settled it, ratifying it, using a sentence of different kind. ‘If anyone’, says he, ‘shall infringe thy refuge, let him be excommunicate. But whoever shall observe it abides beloved of God and men.’ The king, saying these things, gave to him his own best stallion with all horse accoutrements, and three chief weapons, to wit, shield, sword, and spear, and also everything which he had brought with him, except those things which he reserved for himself as necessary for food. These things fulfilled, they returned each one to his own. The sword conferred on him by king Rhun the blessed Cadog gave to Gwrgan Fryeh, who at that time reigned in Glamorgan, in exchange for a half share of the fish of the river Usk, that he might always have at Llancarfan therefrom food for Lent. The horse too he bestowed on the same king with all equestrian trappings in exchange for a half share of the fish of the river Neath that he might have thence every Lent at Llanmaes whether boiled or roast for food and viands. And he possessed as well two wooden horses so inestimably swift that no animal could be compared with them in speed, on which his servants brought every necessary from all parts. It was a day’s journey for the wooden horses from Llancarfan to Neath and Brycheiniog in going and returning.

§25. Of the deliverance of king Rhain from the hands of the men of Gwynllyw’s land.
A third miracle God did by saint Cadog according to the evidence of the graphium of the refuge of his stock of Gwynlliog. Rhain, son of Brychan, uncle of the same, having marched forth from his borders plundered and wasted the province of Gwynlliog as far as the sea. The men of Gwynllyw’s land also rose up to meet his army, and put him to flight, and smote his men in the place which is called Pwll Rhain, and in Pwll Rhudd, and in Pwll lithion and Pwll Gweddillion, which places received their names from them. Also the aforesaid Rhain was besieged by the men of Gwynllyw’s land) because they dared not by any means kill the uncle of their master without his bidding. Therefore the blessed Cadog came, and rescued the aforesaid Rhain from blockade, who, when Cadog had received from him a confession of his faults, confirmed the refuge, which previously Maelgwn and Arthur had granted to him by a ratified treaty. Moreover, Rhain uttered words of this sort, ‘Since thou hast freed me to­day’, said he, ‘may every one who shall spring from my race, be cursed, unless he have protected the race of Gwynllyw, and if he violate the pact which I have concluded with saint Cadog.’ Then saint Cadog prayed to the Lord to give him a king, who should rule his race for him, and there was given him Meurig son of Enhinti. And saint Cadog went out to meet him, and gave to him his aunt, Dibunn by name, with the whole region, except Gwynlliog, and he blessed them, and commanded that they should keep his refuge in accordance with the pact which he had previously concluded with Maelgwn and Arthur and Rhain. Which agreement Meurig allowed in the presence of these witnesses: of the clergy, David, Cynidr, Eiludd (that is, Teilo), Illtud, Maeddog, Cannau, and several others. And the blessed Cadog commanded Meurig, saying, ‘Protect my country and inheritance of Gwynlliog, and let it be free from all fiscal tribute, except that they go with thee in the host to battle three days and nights, and, if they go with thee longer, thou shalt feed them.’ And Meurig replied, ‘May it be so for ever.’ And the man of God added, ‘Blessed be he, who shall keep the tenor of this pact. Who shall not observe it, may he be cursed by God and all his saints.’ And all the clergy answered, ‘Amen.’

§26. Of the journey of saint Cadog into Scotland and the miracles there done by him.
Again, another miracle, worthy of mention, the condescension of God deigned to do openly to the praise of his name and the glory of his faithful client, Cadog. One day, his disciples having assembled in one place, he speaks to them after this manner: ‘Since by the divine will I have journeyed thrice to Jerusalem and seven times to Rome for the love of God, it now remains that for the sake of prayer I should go to the church of saint Andrew the Apostle, which is known to have been built in Albany, which they commonly call Scotland. Wherefore I appoint for you ~n place of myself, as my representative and ruler, Elli, my disciple, whom we know to be constantly devoted to divine services from his childhood, and to be not a little skilled in evangelical doctrines, whose instructions may you be quick to obey in each and every thing and to the best of your powers.’ And they said, ‘Everything which shall be pleasing to you we right gladly assent to’. Therefore the man of God arising with three of his disciples went to Scotland, and arrived at the threshold of the aforesaid church of the blessed Andrew. At length, his vigils and prayers there being ended, he took his journey back, and when, returning, he had arrived at a certain fort, which is on this side of mount Bannog, which is said to be situated in the middle of Scotland, in that night, when he had yielded to sleep, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, ‘The Lord thy God bids thee through me not to depart hence, but rather to remain here for the space of seven years for the purpose of converting the people of this place to the faith of the Lord.’ There the man of God sojourned for the time appointed, preaching daily, and teaching the heathen people, and curing all sick people. One day, when saint Cadog was digging the ground about a monastery to be built, he found a collar (or neck) bone of some ancient hero, monstrous and enormous, of incredible bulk, through which, wonderful to relate, a champion on horseback could (or might) ride without check. Which being found, saint Cadog, wondering, said, ‘I will not approach meat or drink, but prayer in place of food and tears in place of drink will be mine, until this prodigious thing, what it may be, is revealed to us by God.’ That same night a sound of angelic speech addressed him from heaven, saying, ‘Behold, the cry of thy prayer is acceptable in the ears of the Lord, for what thou hast humbly asked of God, God will grant thee. But verily do thou strengthen with words thy clergy and the other people, lest they be afraid that something should happen to them. For to-morrow in the first hour of the day this ancient giant will be raised from the dead, who will be your digger as long as he lives.’ When these things were heard, rising in the morning, he declared to his people the angelic announcement. While he was yet discoursing to the people, lo, there straightway appeared to them a revived giant of huge stature, horrible and immense, altogether exceeding human measure in size. At this sight everybody in the town, terrified, exclaimed, ‘Lo, a phantasm, transfigured into the form of a man, comes to carry us off.’ But the monstrous hero immediately falls at the feet of the man of God, saying, ‘O saint Cadog, excellent servant of God, be thou blessed of God and men. For I earnestly beseech thy great benignity, that thou by no means permit my wretched soul, till now exceedingly tormented in the awful whirlpools of Cocytus, to return thither afresh.’ Saint Cadog says, ‘Who, pray, art thou, or of what kindred sprung? Explain, too, carefully, the manner of thy exit from this life.’ The giant answered, ‘Beyond mount Bannog formerly I reigned for very many years. It happened that by devilish impulse I with troops of my plunderers arrived on these coasts for the sake of pillaging the same and wasting them. But the king who at that time reigned over this kingdom, pursuing us with his army, slew me and my host, when we had joined battle together. From that day of our killing we were tormented till now in the devouring flames of hell, but my punishment exceeded all the torments of the rest in the enormousness of pains, since I have transgressed against God more than all of them, as the Scripture says, ‘The mighty shall suffer torments mightily.’ The man of the Lord asks by what name he was called. And he replies, ‘Caw (with surname) Prydyn, or Cawr, was I called formerly.’ To whom the man of God, ‘Rejoice,’ said he, ‘and be of good cheer, for it has been allowed me of God that thou shalt live longer in this world, and after the course of this present life, if thou shalt show faithful and devoted service to God and shalt humbly attend to my teachings, and shalt perform due satisfaction for thy sins, thy soul at length will migrate to everlasting glory from this mournful prison of the body, and will there reign in felicity with God.’ To these words the giant made reply thus, ‘All the things which thou hast bidden, seem light to me, and I will willingly bring the same to effect.’ Therefore from that same day till his death the digger of the blessed man wrought by digging what things were commanded him, in that place. As the fame of this miracle spread through­out Scotland, the kings of the Scottish folk presented him with twenty-four homesteads.

§27. Of the bell, which saint Gildas refused to sell to the man of God.
The seven years’ limit divinely fixed beforehand (or determined) having at length been completed, the blessed Cadog returned from that place to his own country, to wit, Llancarfan, and there abode. But it is not to be passed over that a certain Briton, an excellent scholar, and a very good writer, Gildas by name, son of Caw, a skilful craftsman, arriving thither from the coasts of the Irish with a certain most beautiful mottled bell, received from him at Llancarfan one night’s hospitality, who, looking intently at the said bell, struck it. And as the beauty and the sound and the colour had pleased him, he begged the aforesaid Gildas to assent to make over the bell to him. He refused, saying, ‘I will not sell it, but will offer it on the altar of saint Peter at Rome.’ But the blessed Cadog, insisting on the requests already made, said, ‘I will fill it for thee with money.’ But Gildas rejected a second time the offered price. But the other added, ‘I will even give thee as much pure gold as it can hold.’ He said he would not sell the bell on any condition, asserting that, because he solemnly dedicated it to God and saint Peter, he would, God willing, fulfil the vow, since, as Solomon says, ‘A foolish and unfaithful promise is displeasing to God.’ So Gildas then journeyed to Rome with the said bell, and showed it to the Roman Pope, Alexander, saying, ‘This bell, fashioned by me and carried hither from Ireland, I will offer to God and saint Peter on the altar of the same.’ So the supreme pontiff of the apostolic see took it. Carefully examining it, he essays to strike it that he might receive its sound in his ears, but it produced no sound. Then the pope, wondering greatly, asked the cleric, ‘Wherefore gives thy bell no sound, seeing it has a tongue or iron clapper? Why too is it turned into the nature of lead, seeing it is iron? Declare (said he) where it sounded last.’ And he replies, ‘My lord, a certain holy man, Cadog by name, living in Britannia, received me in his guest-chamber in the course of this pilgrimage, who being the last to strike this present bell, made it ring with a sweet sound.’ To whom the pope replied, ‘The man, of whom thou speakest, was once known to me, for he journeyed hither on pilgrimage seven times, and to Jerusalem thrice, for the remission of the souls of his parents and his kinsfolk.’ The Pope again took the bell, and blessed it, and said, ‘This bell, blessed by me and consecrated, carry back to the blessed Cadog, that thereon every principal oath be made, and that it be a sure sanctuary for all Britannia. Thus for two reasons will all the Britons reverence this bell, because it is blessed by me, and because it has been owned by saint Cadog. For I have heard of the incredulity of that race and its rebellious stubbornness, and so I will send them this, that thereby they may agreeably make treaty and peace. And if anyone shall perjure himself thereon, unless he have done due penance, he shall without doubt be anathema here and hereafter.’ These words being truly pronounced by the Apostolicus, the blessed Gildas, taking again the oft mentioned bell, and hastening his journey homewards, brought it back to the blessed Cadog abiding in Llancarfan, and told him everything which had been enjoined on him by the Apostolicus relating to that bell. So on that account he received the sacred bell more eagerly than before, and straightway struck the same with his own hands for sweet sounds. It immediately of itself gave forth a sound of sweet melody, what before it refused in the presence of the Pope. Old learned men of the Britons also say that the Lord for love of saint Cadog raised two dead persons to life by means of this bell, and they testify that he will again at some time raise a third. They also say (or testify) that it spoke twice with human speech, and will speak a third time.

§28. Of the death of king Gwynllyw, the father of saint Cadog. 
Now it happened that saint Gwynllyw, the father of the blessed Cadog, was sick unto death, and he sent a certain servant of his, Istan by name, for his son Cadog, that he might come as soon as possible to see him. He, proceeding quickly, arrived at the river Taff. At that time it was of so great a depth and breadth that no horseman or footman could cross it, except he were carried across by the rowing of ship or boat. For the breadth of the same river at that time stretched from the ford of Ponugual as far as the hill (or descent) of king Morgan, which in the language of that nation is called Rhiw Morgan. Therefore the aforesaid messenger, not finding a skiff to cross the river, called with a loud voice to a certain celibate hermit, a disciple of saint Cadog, by name Tylywai, who lived across the stream, imploring him from the heart that he should go quickly to the blessed Cadog and inform him in the matter of his father’s sickness. His entreaties being carried into effect by the aforesaid hermit, the blessed Cadog, arriving with twenty-four disciples at the house of the said Tylywai, was with all of them that same night there entertained, to wit, at the township of Aradur, Radyr, between Llandaff and the wood. Now Tylywai went as was his wont to the river for the sake of fishing, for previously he was accustomed by the will of God to catch one fish each night, but on that night he enmeshed in his net twenty-four for the supper of the blessed Cadog and his companions. Moreover the blessed man being thirsty asked him to give him a drink. To whom Tylywai replied, ‘Sir, we have no liquor here suitable for a drink, and the spring too is far off.’ The man of the Lord extended his bachall to him, saying, ‘Take my bachall with thee, and whereever it pleases thee, strike into the ground with its end, and straightway the Lord will cause a spring of living water to flow for our need.’ And so it happened. That night, whilst the man of God was deeply pondering in his mind over several things, how at daybreak he might cross the river, an angel of the Lord appeared to him saying, ‘Be of firm mind, neither be troubled nor anxious for the uncertainty of this matter, because God is to thee a strong helper. For to-morrow, when thou hast arrived at the mar­ gin of this great river, taking a rod in hand, striking the river three times in the name of the Holy Trinity after the manner of Moses, the leader of the Israelitish people, the Lord God will divide this river for you, and will cause you on this side of the same to go over dry-shod.’ So when the light of dawn broke, blessed Cadog rose up with all his companions, having sure confidence in the Lord, and going with them to the shore of the aforesaid stream, he there fulfilled the angelic commands. So the river Taff being struck is immediately divided, the upper part flowing towards the mountain and the lower part to the sea, like to the river Jordan in the ministry of Christ’s baptism, whereof it is said ‘What ails thee, O sea, that thou fleddest, and thou, Jordan, that thou wast turned back?’ Blessed Cadog and his company crossing through the channel of the river dry-shod, the above mentioned Tylywai called after them, saying, ‘Dear servant of God, do not leave this river in a state of this sort, but let it flow in its former course, before you depart hence, that one may fish therein; but, if it can be done, let it be for ever diminished in its depth as also in its breadth, that men on foot may be able to pass through it.’ And the man of God prayed together with his clerics that the aforesaid river might continue for ever smaller in accordance with the petition of the prayer of Tylywai. As they prayed, lo, the vast stream, as an immense torrent breaking forth headlong from broken rocks, after the manner of a foaming sea suddenly overflowing, flowed down to the ocean precipitately all the way along its wonted channel, but its breadth and depth have been less to this day. Also a huge rock, as if torn from an infernal abyss, it carried down on the land of the aforesaid hermit, and left there. When the hermit had seen this so, he told the blessed man. Wherefore he commanded that that heap (or congeries) of stones should be called by the name of the aforesaid worshipper of God, Cam, that is, rock, Tylywai. Withdrawing thence the venerable man came to his sick father, who, rejoicing not a little at his coming, said to him, ‘I summoned thee hither to me, that thou mightest hear my confession at the close of my life.’ Then the blessed Cadog gave him the viaticum of the eucharist, and received his confession. And he with renewed spirit, blessing his son, said, ‘Be thou blessed’, said he, ‘because through thee the Lord has had mercy on me, and has consented to bestow on me his compassion. Therefore now, in the presence of all here standing by and hearing my testament, I commit to thee even as formerly the whole of my country, for which thou hast long endured many injuries and some losses. Moreover I concede to thee this privilege, that from the spring, which in British is called Ffynnon Hen, that is, from the old well, till one is come to the entrance of the river Naddawan, all kings and counts, also nobles, leaders and household inmates, be buried in the cemetery of thy monastery of Llancarfan. For in this place let none be buried except exiles and women dying in childbirth. Whoever shall keep the mandate of this privilege, may God keep him now and on. But whoever shall not keep it, may God destroy him in this life and in the future one.’ And all the people answered, ‘Amen’. When Gwynllyw, the father of blessed Cadog, was dead, he was buried by the wall on the south side in his own monastery, which is called from his name in the British tongue Eglwys Wynllyw. Cadog, the exequies of his father being duly and honourably performed, went back with his clerics to his own place.

§29. Of the submersion of saints Barruc and Walees, and of the manual found in the salmon’s belly.
At another time it happened that blessed Cadog one day sailed with his two disciples, to wit, Barruc and Gualehes, from the island of Echni, which is now called Holm, to another island, named Barren, Barry. When he had prosperously touched port, he asked his aforesaid disciples for his enchiridion, that is, manual book. But they confessed that through forgetfulness they had left it behind in the aforesaid island. On hearing this he compelled them to board ship at once, also to go back to fetch the book. Burning with anger he uttered a reproof of this sort against them, ‘Go ye, never to return.’ Then the disciples, making no delay, quickly entered the vessel according to their preceptor’s bidding, and made for the aforesaid island by rowing. Also, the aforesaid volume being recovered, they soon returning on their watery course even to the midst of the sea, the man of God sitting on the top of a hill in Barren, and from a distance watching them in mid-ocean, the boat being unexpectedly overturned, they were drowned. The body of Barruc was found, cast up by the sea, on the Barrensian shore, and buried in the same island, which is from his name called Barren to this day. The body of the other, to wit, Gualees, was carried by the sea to the island of Echni, and buried there. About the ninth hour the servant of God, Cadog, desiring to refresh with food his body wasted with fastings, bade his followers to get fish for him for supper. As they were going to sea for the purpose of fishing, they found on the sand a salmon of wondrous size, and rejoicing they bring it back to their preceptor. When they had disembowelled it, they found the aforesaid book in its entrails, unhurt by any injury of waters, and white. The man of the Lord, giving God thanks, receiving it with alacrity, declared openly to all that nothing was impossible to God.

§30. Of wolves transformed into stones.
Another miracle no less wonderful divine compassion deigns to perform on account of the merits of his faithful servant, Cadog. When his sheep were feeding on the aforesaid island of Echni, lo, two wolves arrived by swimming from England to that place. At length, several sheep there having been torn by them, also some slain by their rapacious teeth, they attempted to swim across the channel towards Britannia, Wales. When they had come to its midst, by divine judgement they were transformed into stones, which are called in the British speech Cunbleid, that is, wolf-like stones, because the wolves had provoked the servant of God and torn his sheep.

§31. How saint Cadog in Cornwall produced from the earth by prayers a health-giving well.
Nor yet does it weary the goodness of God to add to marvels greater marvels, but it pleases him to make his renowned servant more renowned with signs and miracles, whilst he provides a most celebrated remedy and solace for human weakness. For formerly, when the same most illustrious man had come from the mount of St. Michael—which is known to be in the region of the Cornish­men, and in the speech of that province is called Dinsol, where the same archangel is venerated by all who come there—hot and fatigued with the journey he thirsted much. The place where this happened was exceedingly arid. Therefore blessed Cadog pierced the ground with his bachall, and immediately on the spot a copious spring gushed forth from the soil, and therefrom both he and they who accompanied him all drank abundantly after the manner of the Israelitish people thirsting in the wilderness, when Moses struck the rock with a rod and waters flowed in abundance. When all were satisfied with water, he said to his companions, ‘Let us, brethren, earnestly entreat the divine bounty that all, who come ill to this sacred fount, may receive therefrom healing of divers diseases, God’s grace assenting thereto, and as it quenched our raging thirst, so may it the poisonous plagues of bodies.’ For if any sick person drink from that fount, trusting firmly in the Lord, he will receive soundness of belly and bowels, and he will throw up in his vomit all slimy worms out of himself. After the Cornishmen had perceived that by divine pity frequent recoveries of health of both sexes were incessantly being effected at the same well, they built a little church of stone by the fountain in honour of saint Cadog.

§32. Of the commingling of the Jordanic water in the Cornish well.
Holy Cadog, desiring to go on pilgrimage after an interval of time, brought his wish to effect. He visited the thresholds of St. Peter, then Jerusalem, afterwards the Jordanic river, whereof he filled a waterskin, bringing it with him to Britain. The sacred water brought he put into the aforesaid well, which he by prayers produced from the soil in the Cornish province. Wherefore it became more sacred by this inpouring and mingling. For previously it restored some to health, but afterwards it cured more than a hundredfold.

Where Christ washed those whom the first man tainted,
From thence comes the revered water of Cadog;
To those imbued with filth this fountain is a cause of salvation.

§33. Of the thief who stole the ox.
Now it happened that on a day an official of saint Cadog, whom at that time they used to call the sexton of Llancarfan, constrained by the command of the abbot and the necessity of the clerics, proceeded to the court of a certain regulus, Rhydderch by name, carrying with him the gospel of Gildas. There was in that court the same day an action against a certain rustic, who had taken by theft a certain ox, he denying with all his might the crime charged against him. Then the sexton came up to him, and suddenly for a joke bared his knife of no small size, and brandishing it with shaking hand said ‘O stupid, here is the knife of saint Cadog. If thou perjure thyself thereon, thou shalt die the death at once, because it will penetrate thine entrails.’ Then the rustic, being much terrified, throws himself prone at the feet of that cleric, confessing guilt, saying, ‘For the love of God and saint Cadog have mercy on me, for I have perpetrated the crime of theft as to the ox, yea, I have committed perjury besides.’ Which being known, the king with those standing by made an offering to the gospel of Gildas, and also endowed the cleric with a gift, and delivered the thief in perpetual servitude to the monastery of saint Cadog.

§34. Of the Gospel of Gildas.
When blessed Gildas lived serving God in the island of Echni, he wrote a mass book, and offered it to saint Cadog, when he was his confessor, and so that codex is called the Gospel of Gildas. This is the tradition of that volume. If anyone of the progeny of Cynaethwy shall have committed perjury on that gospel, may his life be shortened. And if anyone of the clerics of the Valley of Carfan, that is, Llancarfan, going forth, moved by necessity, bearing the Gospel of Gildas, shall have come up to anyone of the offspring of Cynaethwy, if by chance he finds him putting on his garment, he shall by no means put it on altogether without leave of the cleric, but clad in half his clothes and with bare feet, obeying his orders, let him go without delay to the Valley of Carfan. Of such a kind too is the tradition of the parti-coloured bell. If anyone of the offspring of Lyuthyli shall have made a lying oath on the parti­coloured bell, his life will be shortened, nor will he be enriched by inheritance, but he will die speedily. If anyone of the clerics of Carfan Valley, constrained by any business, carrying the parti­coloured bell, shall have proceeded to anyone of the stem (or progeny) of Lyuthyly, if by chance he shall have found him putting on a tunic or cloak, without the permission of the cleric let him not clothe himself entirely, but let him go back with him quickly half-nude to the Valley of Carfan.

§35. Of an edifice of religion, which the man of God built in Armorica.
In that time, when Cadog of revered memory had gone to Rome, and had travelled through all places of saints established throughout Italy and Gaul for the sake of seeing the relics of the saints, it happened that he came to a certain province, which formerly Armorica, then Llydaw, but now is called Lesser Britain. He heard that in that place was a certain island, none inhabiting it, situated in the sea, distant from the shore by the space of a third part of one league. He, entering a boat with his disciples, arrived seasonably at the harbour of that land. Seeing it to be fair and fertile, he said to his followers, ‘Ah, brethren, this place with God’s approval I choose, and here, if it shall be well-pleasing to you, I desire to tarry.’ And they answering said, ‘Sir, what seems good to thee, we shall gladly do.’ In fact he built there an elegant basilica of stone. But afterwards he caused to be built by masons a stone bridge skilfully constructed with vaulted work, having the arches joined together with quarried stone. These things finished, one night, while he was indulging in sleep, he heard addressing him an angelic voice, ‘Cadog, most faithful of the servants of God, it is not lawful for thee to dwell here any longer, but it behoves thee to return home quickly, since thy clerics grieve for thy long absence not a little.’ Consequently lauds having been rendered to God according to wont, he summoned all the monks to him, and told them his vision, saying, ‘Ah well. My companions and brothers,’ said he, ‘most dear in the Lord, I can here no longer tarry, but now I earnestly bid you persevere constant in God's service.’ These words being heard, they all began to weep bitterly. He then appointed a prior for them in his place from his disciples, Cadwaladr by name. When he had blessed his disciples and had received from them leave to depart, he began to take his home­ward way, and, immense tracts of land having been crossed, he duly and prosperously reached his own basilica of Llan­carfan. Not long after, the monks of the aforesaid island went out to look at the sea, being very weary of the absence of their master, pursuing him with the desire of the spirit and the gazing of the eyes in the way whereon he had gone, when at once in the twinkling of an eye, while they were gazing, the bridge gave way, so ruinously reduced to nought as though it had never been made. Which seen, returning to the church in very great grief, they fell prone on the earth, and for three days and nights they fasted, entreating the Lord for solace on account of so great a misfortune. But the third night a voice from heaven is sent to the prior of that place in dreams, saying, ‘God for love of saint Cadog has listened to your deprecation, for to-morrow you will see the bridge standing entire and undamaged.’ Lauds having been sung, the prior told the clerics the revelation disclosed to him by God. Then for exceeding joy the monks ran as quickly as possible to see the thing promised, and found the bridge uninjured, and seven times stronger than it had been before. And when they had diligently examined the bridge hither and thither, they returned joyful to their oratory, praising and blessing the Lord. This miracle becoming widely known throughout the whole of that land, all the dwellers in that province gave honour and praise to God and to saint Cadog. For blessed Cadog is called by the same race Catbodu, and from his name that island has taken its name, that is, mis Catbodu, wherein are found very many kinds of fruits, which are said to confer the cure of divers diseases.

§36. Of the rustic who gazed unlawfully on the tombs of saint Cadog’s disciples.
Long ago the same patron of revered memory built an elegant monastery of stone work in Albania, Scotland, on this side of the mountain Bannauc. Brethren having gathered therein, he appointed that devout service to God should be given by them for ever. In a certain porch of this monastery the bodies of three of his disciples are lying buried in marble sepulchres. But no one dares to inspect the sarcophagi of the same except a bachelor or virgin, or one ordained. But there is a certain opening outside in the wall of the porch, through which kings and magnates of that country, if by chance a matter of great dissension has arisen among them, put in their hands and perform the solemnities of an oath. If any one breaks that oath, he will go down to death before the end of that year. Now a multitude of people was gathered together in wonted manner on the day of the festival of saint Cadog to hear mass. When the celebration of the mass was ended, a certain foolish rustic, noisy with loud clamour in the midst of the peoples, said to the presbyters, ‘Will you let me go to the opening that I may look through it?’ Replying, they said to him, ‘Go, and may saint Cadog cause that a mark of vengeance appear on thee.’ The rash fellow, therefore, ran to the opening, and covered one eye with his hand placed thereon, for with the other open he looked through the window, and sooner than said the open eye cracked, and by the optic nerve hung down his face. So thereupon the rustic, emitting a great and mournful lamentation, hurried in mad course towards the crowds of people. When he was seen, the whole multitude with uplifted voices poured forth praises to God and saint Cadog, saying, ‘From the rising of the sun and the setting the name of the Lord is to be praised.’ Indeed the rustic likewise went about from place to place throughout the whole province of Lintheamina, covering his torn eye. Many used to bestow a reward on him, that he might show them the rent orb of the eye. Therefrom his compatriots were learning to fear God more and more, and reverently to glorify him with his saint. But as it is too laborious to set in order with a pen all the miracles and prodigies of this holy patron, let these few from many suffice those who read devoutly. For no one is able to unfold all his wondrous acts, unless Cadog himself were to rise from death. Now to tell in what manner he was translated in a white cloud from Britain to the Beneventan city, we have thought it worth while with the divine approval to turn our pen.

Here ends the Life of saint Cadog, who also is Sophias.

Here begins the Passion of the same on January 24th in the Beneventan monastery.

§37. How saint Cadog was translated from Nant Carfan to Beneventum in a white cloud.
The angel of the Lord appeared to the blessed Cadog in sleep on the eve of Palm Sunday, saying to him, ‘God hath decreed that thou shalt now depart from the land of Britannia.’ The blessed man, answering him, says, ‘All things that shall be ordered me by the Lord I will the more gladly bring to effect to the best of my power, but how I shall depart hence I am completely ignorant.’ To him the angel: Now verily tomorrow after thou shalt have preached the gospel to thy people, thou shalt return to the place which is by thy fortress where thou wast wont to rest after thy preaching, and in that place, halting thy step, thou shalt delay a little while, and there suddenly a bright cloud shall cover thee, and so on it in the body thou shalt be carried to the Beneventan monastery, as Elijah in a fiery chariot to Paradise. And this shall be a sign to thee; when thou shalt be about to descend from the cloud, the abbot of that monastery in that same hour will be honourably committed to the grave in thy presence. His body being at length buried after the manner of abbots, the monks of that same monastery will substitute thee in his room as abbot. Wherefore thou shalt entrust thy principal town, Llancarfan, with all the clergy and thy people to thy celibate disciple, Elli, in the sight of all, and shalt appoint him a teacher and a ruler to them.’ And in the same night the same messenger of God is shown in a vision in sleep to the prior of the Beneventan monastery announcing these things, ‘Tomorrow, verily, a certain wise western British cleric, a chosen servant of God, is about to come hither to you, and do you beg earnestly of your bishop, that he be appointed abbot over you, as your abbot will die this night. For God hath chosen him that he should be appointed over you in the place of your abbot, and he will be called Sophias by you, because he is full of the wisdom of God.’ The blessed Cadog, therefore, rising early in the morning, related to Elli, his very dear virgin auditor, what had been predicted to him by the angel. About the first hour on Palm Sunday, after conferring with Elli secretly concerning these matters which I have just mentioned, he made a procession according to custom with the relics of the saints, proceeding from the church with the clergy, the people following them, as far as the nil of saint Cadog, which in British is called Pistyll Catwg, and there, as they say, he preached to the people from a mound, which is by the same nil, until the third hour. And about the third service after preaching he returns with the whole company to his fort and there he tarried renewing his discourse. At length having finished his address, he speaks according to the angelic command to all who were standing by with words of this sort, ‘Hear me, brethren, and receive my words into your ears. For to-day I appoint my disciple, Elli, to be ruler over you and teacher; and do you receive him gladly, and, humbly obeying him, serve him, since he is holy. For I am myself ignorant of the end of my life.’ Elli indeed alone knew of this matter and bore these words heavily in his heart. Then the man of God commanded them all, and says, ‘I order you this in the name of the Lord, that no mundane powerful king or bishop or nobleman ever judge over you as to any controversy or injury. But if any one shall inflict any crime (or, loss) against you, or any of you injure another, or in any other cause whatsoever, which in whatever way may be pronounced respecting you, let your judges be from among yourselves. And let the place of judgement be beneath the shadow of my Hazel bush, which I myself planted near the monastery, and let the defendant give his pledge to abide by right judgement into the hand of the abbot at the time of judgement. And let the abbot place it on the altar, and let them decide truth according to the true finding of a synod and the procedure of my judicial book, which I have written. If any one shall contemn this command or break it, may he be cursed in the judgement of the Supreme Judge, nor shall he live long or ever find abundance of good. But he who shall keep it, may he be blessed, and may God add to the length of his life, and may an angel of God accompany him in all places.’ While he was yet speaking, lo, the brightness of God suddenly shone round about them, and all alike fell flat on their faces on the ground, unable to look at the radiance of so great a light. And so all falling on the ground, the blessed Cadog, caught in a white cloud, vanished from their sight, and immediately, in the twinkling of an eyelid, was seen descending from the cloud in the Beneventan monastery in the midst of those who were burying their abbot. And wonderful to relate, he at once knew their language perfectly by the gift of the Holy Spirit, and likewise they knew his. And verily, soon, did they know that it was he of whom the angel spoke previously to the prior. For in the same hour, a congregation of all the clergy, monks, and very many persons having been assembled, together with the bishop of that same monastery, they joyfully with common consent ordained him abbot over them, and called him Sophias. For they saw that he was filled with divine wisdom, even when it was ordered previously by the angel that he should be called by that name. And shortly afterwards the saint likewise fortified a great part of the same town with a wall, which had fallen previously into decay, as the enclosure had been built with the mud of the earth, and the ruin was gradually increasing. But the workmen who laboured being in want of water, and on this account abandoning their task unfinished, complained to saint Sophias, saying, ‘From now we cannot by any means work, for we are unable to find water close by.’ Therefore saint Sophias prayed that night to the Lord that he would deign to show him how he should do in this matter. Now after prayer, when he had laid down his limbs, weary with vigils, in the quiet of sleep, an angel, descending from the air, gently consoles him lest he should be sad on this account, and moreover bids him, rising early, approach the wall of the monastery; and he foretold that there he would find a copious well for the need of the builders. So the saint according to the angel’s bidding quickly casting himself at dawn from his pallet, arrived with haste to view the monastery wall which had been begun, and there found a deep well by the wall.

§38. How saint Elli was wont to visit the blessed Cadog every year.
Now Elli was wont at different times to go as far as the Beneventan monastery for the sake of visiting the blessed Cadog, who also is Sophias, together with some of his disciples, on each of which occasions of visiting the same some died there and were honourably buried in the monastery of saint Sophias, whose graves indeed are placed together in one row in succession before the altar from wall to wall. In fact eight very handsome marble tombs of theirs are to be found therein.

§39. How saint Cadog is raised to be the Beneventan Bishop. 
And so when the bishop of that monastery was dead, the following night an angel of the Lord appeared in a vision to the blessed Sophias, informing him from the Lord that he should receive the order of episcopacy. That night also the same heavenly messenger revealed to the archdeacon, whilst he indulged in sleep, that on the following day without loss of time they should by divine command advance saint Sophias to the rank of pontiff. So the archdeacon together with the community of clerics with the addition of the laity related in the presence of all that by the revelation of an angel a divine announcement was notified to him respecting the promotion of saint Sophias. And the report of the archdeacon pleased all who were listening, and they unanimously place saint Sophias in the chair of the episcopacy. And after a little time, while the same bishop continued in episcopal dignity and ruled his diocese justly and holily, in a vision of the night he heard an angcl of the Lord, speaking to him, ‘Behold there is given to thee from the Lord a choice. Choose now by what death thou wilt, quitting this mortal life, migrate to the eternal kingdom.’ He answers him, ‘I adopt martyrdom as my choice, since it is more precious in the sight of God than all deaths.’ To whom the angel, ‘Be strong’, said he, ‘in heart and mind, for God is with thee. For tomorrow a certain cruel king will ravage this monastery, and, whilst thou wilt be celebrating the divine mysteries of the mass, a certain soldier, leaving his confederates, will enter the monastery, and piercing thee with the point of a spear will cruelly slay thee over the altar.’ And so the blessed Sophias, giving thanks to God for this, said to the angel, ‘Ready am I for martyrdom, for by this death our Lord Jesus Christ and his apostles and many others triumphed over the world and gained the glory of the heavenly kingdom.’ The good Sophias (who also is Cadog), therefore, on waking arose, as was his wont, to lauds, and as the day brightened about the first hour he put on the mass vestments to celebrate the divine sacrifice. And verily as he there sang mass, lo, the aforesaid tyrant, having collected his army, wasted the suburbs contiguous to the town, some of which troops came into the monastery to plunder. Wherefore, while outcries and wailings resounded on all sides throughout the monastery, saint Sophias stood unterrified and did not interrupt the celebration of the mass even a little, although he was aware of this onslaught. Then forthwith one of the horsemen, entering the church in which saint Sophias consecrated the Lord’s sacrament, with impetuous speed and fuming wrath pierced him with a lance as he stood by the holy altar and offered the salutary consecration of the Lord’s Body and Blood. He straightway, covered with his blood, and with eyes raised to heaven, commended his soul to the Lord, saying, ‘Lord Jesus Christ, receive my spirit.’ Also for his slayer after the manner of the blessed proto-martyr Stephen he humbly prayed, ‘Lord, Lord, lay not the sin to his charge, for he knew not what he did.’ And turning to the Lord he continues his petition as follows, ‘Almighty Lord, invisible King, Jesus Christ, the Saviour, grant me my request. Aid the Christians who dwell in my monasteries, and bestow grace on my body, that all who shall possess some part of my bones or of the bones of my disciples may perform miracles, drive demons far off, and may every pestilence be far removed from them. Let there be no sterility in their produce, nor barrenness in their fields, and let them be enriched with abundance of all goods, and forgive them their crimes, so that they may venerate me on earth and glorify thee for ever in heaven.’ And lo, a voice is sent down from a white cloud, saying, ‘Cadog, my servant, ascend to the kingdom of my father, and what things thou hast asked I will render thee, and I will not grieve thee, for thou art blessed, since thou wert mindful of me in death. And I say unto thee that if any one in great tribulation, being mindful of thy name, shall call through thee upon me, he shall be freed from that straitness of tribulation.’ And after the Lord had spoken to him, he fortified himself with the saving sign of the cross and gave up his spirit into the hands of the Almighty. And lo, suddenly there shone a great light on the people intent on his funeral rites and those assembled to bury him, so that none of them could endure it. So they bore his body and placed it, wrapped in white linen, in a silver coffin, and carried it to a place of burial with hymns and psalms and chants and many lights, and honourably buried him. And verily many more miracles occurred at the monument of his sarcophagus since his departure than previously during his life. Sight was restored to the blind, and walking to the lame. The leprous were cleansed. Demons were put to flight from those possessed. So in his honour they built a great basilica over his venerable tomb, into which no Briton is permitted to enter. Which is so done, as the learned of the Beneventan monastery say, because it may be that a Briton from his chief monastery, to wit, even from Llancarfan, shall arrive there from Britain, and shall at some time by the theft of the relics of his body carry away from there the sacred soil and after the removal of that most precious deposit shall cause all the miracles and all the grace of that saint to depart with the most precious relics of his body, together with the soil, from that place to his own land, to wit, Britain, where he was born, at Llancarfan. Nay, what, it is agreed, is more grievous and horrible to hear, they predict that after the removal of his sacred body the blessed spring that is by the fort, which God caused to flow from the ground for the need of the workmen owing to his prayers, will like a sea overwhelm the whole fort and all its inhabitants. So saint Cadog (or Sophias), whilst he flourished in this life, shunning human praise, did many things known to God only and unknown to mortals, since he never by any interval of interruption neglected perseverance in his frugality and thrift, fasts, vigils, and prayers. He not only performed miracles during his life, but also after his transit from the prison-house of this deceitful world he accomplished innumerable marvels and signs, through the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, who with God the Father and the Holy Ghost lives and reigns for ever and ever, Amen.


§40. Of the bellowing of saint Cadog’s shrine when struck by a certain person, and the death of the striker.
After the departure of the most glorious Cadog from transitory affairs to eternal, a certain sheriff of the English, very strong in troops, called by the name Eilaf, came to Glamorgan with a large company of followers to plunder and devastate. Then the clergy of the renowned Cadog, having heard the report of his impiety, fled from Llancarfan with the shrine of the saint and other relics, seeking a place of safety, as far as the monastery of Mammelliat, and there hid themselves. And whilst they were sojourning there awhile with the shrine and relics, a horde of plunderers, Danes and English, came to (or, rushed upon) them, who, seeing the shrine, sought to take it away with them, and with all their strength from four even to a hundred men tried to raise it up, but could not even shift it from the monastery. Wherefore stirred by mad wrath, one of them madder than the rest ran the faster, and taking up a strong cudgel, struck it a blow. On its being struck, it gave forth a loud bellow like a bull, and terrified exceedingly the whole army, and immediately a great earthquake occurred in those parts. At length, when the shrine had been abandoned by them, one more wretched than the rest, drawn by greed, broke off its gilded wing with an axe, and concealed it in his bosom, and it immediately burnt his bosom like fire, and compelled him, astonished with the pain of the heat, quickly to put back the wing in its position. When it had been put back, it adhered firmly as though it had been joined by a welding of gold. When this was done, the sorry violator of that shrine melted away in the sight of the whole army, like wax in front of the fire. When they had seen this prodigy, all, struck with terror, withdrew from that place, driven from their booty, and afterwards they lacked inclination to plunder the monasteries of the afore-mentioned patron and also ceased to devastate his lands.

§41. Of the ox, cut up into pieces and boiled, restored again to life.
On a certain occasion Maredudd, king of Rheinwg, came to Glamorgan with a strong force of enemies, that he might reign over it. Wherefore after arrival he gave orders to gather loot and to drive off oxen to the camp for food. So they brought up a hundred oxen, among which was one very fat which had been snatched from the blessed Cadog’s townsmen. This was killed and cut in pieces to prepare roasted flesh for the hungry king and also his companions, but its flesh could not by any means even be roasted on coals or boiled in water. When this was told the king, he ordered all the aforesaid oxen to be returned to their owners. And when they were all brought together, the slaughtered ox, which I have mentioned above, appeared among the rest unhurt, alive, and safe. Then each one taking his own ox, [returned] praising and glorifying God for his precious servant Cadog.

§42. Of the breaking of the iron rings.
Now after much time three strangers, bound with iron rings, came from the east to the monastery of the aforesaid saint on the day of his festival. And while mass was being celebrated, they broke those three iron bands in the sight of all the people. Wherefore that this miracle might be manifest to all, they suspended those rings over the altar.

§43. Of the murdered overseer brought back to life again.
Again the same saint possesses part of a field in Ireland on the bank of the river Liffey, where he had a certain most faithful steward, who boldly protected his master’s cornfields lest his neighbours’ cattle should feed off them. But, as he very often shut up in confinement his neighbours’ animals, the head of that province, inflamed with anger, assembled to him a hundred armed men, and together they attacked the blessed man’s overseer. So all striking him in turn, each one singly with one stroke of his sword they killed him with many wounds, in order that not one but all equally should be responsible for this homicide. Whilst they were retreating after his death, and looking back, they saw him, who had been slain a little before, standing sound. When this was seen, they quickly directed their course to him, observing how soon the wounds of his head had been cured, which, the scars being healed, appeared no more than bruises made with reeds. Then all grovelling at his feet, he forgave them the offence of his death. And they departing thence went together to the king, telling him all that they had seen in respect of this miracle. And the king, when he heard these things, enlarged the bounds of the field of that memorable patron, and magnified him throughout his whole life. The learned of the Irish, who live at Clonard in the monastery of his blessed disciple Finian, also testify that, if any one of the clergy of saint Cadog should go to them, they receive him honourably, and make him an heir, even as one of them. And this is said to be a prognostic of their justice and an ancient token, that he should undo the lock of the monastery by touch of hand without a key.

§42. Of the bending of a tree under the feet of a preacher.
At one time a king of Reinmuc, Cynan by name, surnamed Carwyn, a strong force of enemies having been collected, resolved to invade the whole of Glamorgan, and after slaughtering men and looting cattle and goods to claim it for himself. And having moved up the camp, they sat on the bank of the great river Neath. When this was ascertained, the king of Glamorgan, struck with fear, earnestly entreated the clergy of the oft-mentioned saint that they should go to meet the king of Reinmuc together with the relics and coffin of the same patron, and humbly beg of him that he should not inflict any injury on them undeservedly. Whilst they were going with the relics to the bank of the river Neath, one of them climbed up a high tree with a mottled bell that he might address the king from there, since they had not been able to cross the river on account of the excessive inundation of waters. Then calling to the king from the top of the tree, he preached to him of the miracles of blessed Cadog. Whilst he was preaching, the tree under that cleric’s feet began to bend itself by degrees as far as the ground, and to make itself a means of crossing in place of a bridge that he, passing across the river, might talk to the king face to face. When this was seen, the aforesaid king conferred the protection of peace on the whole land, and returned from that place in peace to his own habitation with the whole array of his army. 0 truly blessed man, in whom was found no guile, judging none unjustly, despising none! No one ever beheld him too joyful or sorrowful, except in hours of prayer, wherein tears were poured out to God with petitions. Nor on any occasion did adversity break him, or prosperity exalt. Never on his lips was aught except Christ and what things pertain to him for the furtherance of human amendment, nor in his heart was aught except peace and steadfast piety with pity. Daily in the Holy Spirit he sought those things which were not his own but Jesus Christ’s, for he was a chosen temple of the ‘blessed breath’ (or of the Holy Spirit). And therefore on account of all these things and others like them, he shines in heaven in unfading and inestimable and everlasting glory, which eye hath not seen nor ear heard nor hath it entered into the heart of man, in company with the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, Three and One, the true almighty God, to whom is honour and glory, power and might, dominion and government, continuing without end, for ever and ever. Amen.

None can tell the miracles done by Cadog;
It is because this present writer is not clever by way of speech.
May Christ, the creator of the round world, pardon 
Him who wrote [this] life—his sins, by name Lifris.

§45. Of the genealogy of the blessed Cadog.
The genealogy of the most blessed Cadog begins with the most noble emperors of the Romans, starting from the time of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. Augustus Caesar, in whose time Christ was born, begat Octavian, Octavian begat Tiberius, Tiberius begat Gaius, Gaius begat Claudius, Claudius begat Vespasian, Vespasian begat Titus, Titus begat Domician, Domician begat Nero, under whom suffered the apostles of Christ, Peter and Paul. Nero begat Trajan, Trajan begat Adrian, Adrian begat Antonius, Antonius begat Commodus, Commodus begat Meobus, Meobus begat Severus, Severus begat Antonius, Antonius begat Maucanus, Maucanus begat Aurelianus, Aurelianus begat Alexander, Alexander begat Maximus, Maximus begat Gordianus, Gordianus begat Philip, Philip begat Decius, Decius begat Gallus, Gallus begat Valerianus, Valerianus begat Cleopatra, Cleopatra ‘begat’ Aurelianus, Aurelianus begat Titus, Titus begat Probus, Probus begat Carocius, Carocius begat Dioclician, who persecuted the Christians in all the world. For in his period (or time) blessed martyrs, to wit, Alban Julian, and Aaron, and many others suffered martyrdom. Dioclitian begat Galerius, Galerius begat Constantine the Great, son of Helena, Constantine begat Constantius, Constantius begat Maximian, with whom the soldiers of the Britons went out from Britain, and he it was who killed Gratian, emperor of the Romans, and he held the empire of all Europe, and on account of their valour did not allow the fighting men, whom he brought with him from Britain, to return to their native land, but assigned them several provinces and regions, even from the pooi, which is on the top of Mount Jove as far as the city, Cantguic by name, and as far as the western mound, that is, Crug Ochideint. And from those knights is sprung the race, which is called Llydaw (to wit, the Bretons). And so Maximian begat Owain, Owain begat Nor, Nor begat Solor, Solor begat Glywys, Glywys begat Gwynllyw, Gwynllyw begat the most blessed Cadog, of whom we are speaking.

§46. A tracing back of the genealogy of saint Cadog.
The genealogy is traced back of the mother of the same saint on the side of her father from the best stocks of the kings of the Irish. Briscethach begat Brusc, Brusc begat Urbf, Urbf begat Anlach, Anlach begat Brachan, Brachan begat Gladusa, the mother of saint Cadog. This is the genealogy of Gladusa on the side of her mother from the race of the Kings of the Morcanentes and the Mecumentes. Anna, whom learned men say was the cousin of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, bare Beli, Beli begat Aballach, Aballach begat Baallad, Baallad begat Oudolenn, Oudolenn begat Eudos, Eudos begat Ebiud, Ebiud begat Outigirun, Outigirun begat Oudicant, Oudicant begat Ritigirnus, Ritigirnus begat Rimetel, Rimetel begat Grat, Grat begat Urban, Urban begat Teilpuill, Teilpuill begat Teuhuant, Teuhuant begat Tecmant, Tecmant begat Guotepauc, Guotepauc begat Coilhen, Coilhen begat Guorgust, Guorgust begat Merchiaun, Merchiaun begat Cinmarch, Cinmarch begat Henninni, his daughter, Henninni bare Mouric, Meouric begat Erbic, Erbic begat Yrb, Yrb begat Idnerh, Idnerh begat Teitfall, Teitfall begat Teudiric. Teudiric, who was made a martyr in Gwent, to wit, Merthir Teudiric, who begat Marchell, mother of Gladusa. Now Gladusa bare the blessed Cadog.

§47. Of the genealogy of the mother of king Gwynllyw, father of the venerable Cadog, repeated from the above-mentioned woman.
Anna bare Beli, Beli begat Aballach, Aballach begat Baallad, Baallad bare Euguein, Euguein begat Brithguein, Brithguein begat Dubunn, Dubunn begat Oumiud, Oumiud begatAnguerit, Anguerit begat Amgoloit, Amgoloit begat Guordubn, Guordubn begat Dubn, Dubn begat Guordoli, Guordoli begat Doli, Doli begat Guorceng, Guorceng begat Ceint, Ceint begat Tacit, Tacit begat Patern Peis Rudauc, Patern begat Etern, Etern begat Cuneda, Cuneda begat Credic, Credic begat Guaul, mother of Gwynllyw. Now Gwynllyw begat the most holy Cadog.

§48. Of [the canons and their possessions].
Saint Cadog appointed thirty-six canons, who should continually and by their rule serve Nantcarfan church, which he himself founded from the beginning by the election of God and men according to the Divine purpose, and as many courts, in which the canons might have their buildings, and as many shares of arable land, wherein there were eighty acres, which were called from ancient times the possessions of the courts, which gardeners cultivated who had the task of arranging the grounds and gardens, and of guarding the guest chambers ; and moreover as many homesteads, wherefrom they had necessaries of raiment and food.

§49. First, the court of the hermitage, which is the property of the Abbot, with the homestead Treimgueithen. The court of Benignus, which the Doctor possesses with a share of land in the Castle. The court situated by the Hazel, which is the Priest’s, where saint Cadog had a dwelling. The court of Aidan Bloch with the share Niaysgurthin with the homestead further Pennon. The White court, which no dubious character ought to visit, in which saint Eli, his disciple and successor dwelt, with the share Crucygreif, with another nearer and greater Pennon. The court of the Kitchen with a share of land as you go to the right towards Talcatlan with the homestead Pencrychgel. Another court of the Kitchen with a share of land, that is, Cayr i coc, and the homestead of Pellussen. The court of the Consulate with the share by Talcathlan with the homestead of Talpontymit. The court of Trem y crucou with Trem y crucou. The court of Tremlech with a share beyond the cross, and the homestead of Tremlech. The court of Samson with the share of Cymmyoucyti. The court of Elphin, with the homestead Cestilldincat. The court of Chincencoh. The court of the Bakery with the homestead of Nantbucelis. The court of Talcatlan with the homestead of Talcatlan, which is the property of the Abbot. The court of Gurci, the priest, with the share of Cair Arthan, and the homestead of Pencrycgel with Pistyl Catuc. The court of Arguistil with the share Ygrestyl and the homestead of Hentrem Dumbrych. The court of Nestrec with the share beyond the ditch Pulltauus with the homestead of Brinsychan. The court of Elda with the homestead of Trefhinun. The court of Cair guicou with the homestead Ecclus Silid. The court of Albryt son of Cynuyt with the homestead Alt Cynuit. The court of Cyndrayth with the share Nantcyncar and the homestead Pencrycgel and Cilbleingurth. The court of Ellybr with the homestead Ellibr. The court of Crucinan with the homestead Crucpilia. The court of Medgarth with the homestead Medgarth. The court of Cayrdicycit with the homestead Caerdicit. The court of Cynblust without part of the church, with the homestead Celii dremiauc, that is, Nant Carthau.

§50. First six parts were given. To the Abbot the first for his demesne; the second to the Doctor for teaching; the third to the Priest for priestly duty. And what remained was divided equally among the clergy according to the number of prebendaries, except four, to wit, the Gravedigger and three messengers, who served the clergy with the relics, wheresoever they should be sent, who had no share with the clergy except in land-portions and foods. But persons, who arrived at the church for sanctuary, and returned from sanctuary, gave them their honour-price, to wit, a ewe with lamb or four pence.

§51. Whosoever shall pay tithe has to divide it into three parts. The first he will give to his confessor, the second to the altar, the third to those praying for him. But the part of the altar is divided, as we have said above.

§52. If anyone, afflicted with illness, should wish to will his goods, let him bequeath them separately according to his ability first to his confessor, afterwards to the church and for wake-offices. And the portions of the church and of the wake-offices are divided as we have said before.

§53. It is to be known that in the days of Gwynllyw there was a certain priest of famous name, Cadog, son of the aforesaid Gwynllyw. And the same blessed Cadog was perfect in the faith, serving the Holy Spirit daily, exercising himself in the holy gospels of Christ. But the aforesaid Gwynllyw, his father, given to carnal allurements, used to instigate his servants frequently to plundering and robberies, and living entirely contrary to law and right, befouled his life with very many blemishes. The blessed Cadog assuredly built his church on four foundations, justice, prudence, fortitude, and temperance. And this monastery was full of companies, singing, reading, praying, whom saint Cadog continually incited by divine exhortations, the Holy Spirit co-operating with him, to the worship of the Deity, and to the duty of mutual love, by rendering the service of mercy to the poor. And when the man of God, Cadog, deeply sighing at the wicked acts of his father, grieved on his account, he sent faithful messengers from among his disciples, namely, Finnian, Gnawan, and Elli, that they might convert him from every error and from the malice of wickedness and transfer him to the service of the Godhead. They carefully made a point of meeting him and unanimously admonished him together with his chief men, that he should renounce the devil and his pomps and crimes, and recovering his reason by doing penance should entrust himself to the counsel of his son, Cadog, and also should confess to God and to him his faults. His wife Gwladus hearing this, prompted by the spirit of the Godhead says, ‘Let us believe in our son, and he will be a father to us in heaven.’ And Gwynllyw answering, says, ‘Whatever he will say to me, I will do, and wherever he wills I will go.’ And so Cadog with his monks, and Gwynllyw with his chief men, and also Gwladus, the mother of Cadog, meeting together, speedily acquiescing in his counsels, both of them, namely, Gwynllyw and his wife, made to the same Cadog a confession of their faults with the satisfaction of penance, and then they bound themselves with a vow to be subject to obey God. As for the rest Gwynllyw addressed all after this manner, ‘Whosoever shall be of my stock, shall serve Cadog in true piety, and all, who shall live in my land, shall be buried in his cemetery after their death.’ And Cadog says, ‘Do penance, for the kingdom of heaven has drawn near. For I will prepare a mansion for you in the heavenly places.’ And forthwith they sang the psalm, ‘The Lord hear thee in the day of trouble’ to the end. The witnesses are Gwynllyw with his elders, Cadog with the monks and his disciples.

§54. After an interval of some time Gwynllyw and his wife went forth by a vow to Theluch, and a messenger came from God to Cadog, that he should come to his parents and counsel them, that they might do true penance for their faults. He, quickly obeying the divine command, encouraged his parents with sacred admonitions to do it. And so Gwladus, his mother, built for herself a church in Pencarnou, and Gwynllyw soon erected another monastery, and in the same place he established those serving God. Then each parent invited Cadog, whom coming they devoutly received, and they gave him the aforesaid churches, which they had built for themselves, and they handed over to his authority all that they had. No one shall be prior of these churches except he be of the familia of Cadog, the man of God, or with his consent and permission. And Gwynllyw said, ‘Whosoever of my stock and of the elders of Gwynlliog shall break it, let him be accursed for ever. Cadog with his monks are witnesses. Let no one receive census or pension of those churches except the familia of Cadog, nor shall there be in them either prior or abbot, except by election or by nomination of the familia of the same Cadog.


§55. It is to be known that Theudor son of Mouric gave a sword and vestment to Cadog and his familia, that they might buy land for the support of the same. But Conigc, the abbot of the altar of saint Cadog, gave that sword and vestment to Spois and Rodric for the township, the name of which is Conguoret in Pencenli, who granted it to be possessed of Cadog and the same church in perpetual right, from the annual pension of which it should pay to the said Conigc and the aforesaid familia by the hand of Spois and his sons for ever nine modii of beer, also bread, flesh, and honey. And, that that possession should be free and quit of all services and exactions of earthly kings, the same Spois, son of Gurhitr, bestowed three cows on Guornemet. Wherefore the aforesaid Rodri held a carta or graphium on the hand of Conigc, abbot of Nantcarfan, in confirmation of this grant. But afterwards Rodri and Spois and his sons came together, Conigc also and his clergy brought the cross of saint Cadog and his earth, and going round the aforesaid land of Conguoret, claimed it, and scattered the earth of the aforesaid saint upon it in the presence of suitable witnesses in token of permanent possession. Of the laity the witnesses are Rodri, Guornemet, Guoguoret, Hoilbiu, Houhoer, Colbiu. Of the clergy, Samson, abbot of the altar of saint Illtud; Conigc, abbot of the altar of saint Cadog, Plossan, Etern, Iouan, Minnocioi, Brenic; and the familia of saint Cadog is witness. Who keeps it, God keep him, and who shall break it, let him be cursed by the Lord, Amen.

§56. It is to be known, that Bronnoguid, the son of Febric, gave the half part of the land, Idraclis, to God and the monastery of saint Cadog for his soul, and that his name might be written in the book of Cadog at Nantcarfan. And he, the same Bronnoguid and his three sons, Guedan and Guobrir and Meuc, held the writing of a graphium on the hand of Conigc, abbot of the altar of Cadog, in eternal right of donation to God and to saint Cadog. For the annual perpetual census of that land is three modii of beer, and bread and flesh, and a mina of honey. For these Bronnotguid, and his three sons and their progeny are to pay annually to the familia of Cadog until the day of judgement. Of this pact are witnesses Bronnotguid, owner of the farm, and his sons, Guoidan [etc.]; Marcant, Iunemet; Conigc, abbot, Elionoy, Brenic, Mannocoi, Beduan, Plosan. Who shall observe this donation, God preserve him, and who shall break it, let him be cursed by God. Amen.

§57. After an interval of time Euan Buurr slew two men, the sons of his sister, to wit, Atgan and Aidnerth. Wherefore came Cadog and Illtud, and they cursed Euan. Wherefore Euan being compelled came, and kings with him, to the presence of Cadog and Illtud, and confessed to them his crimes. And they said to him, ‘Redeem the crime of homicide.’ Cation replies saying, ‘I will give the land, Lan Hoitlon by name, to Cadog, its pensio two vessels of six modii of beer together with bread and flesh and honey according to the accustomed due measure of a debt.’ But Merchiaun gave a township, to wit, Conhii, to Illtud and three vessels, which contained six modii of beer. Setting apart each several vessel with the lands they gave them to the aforesaid saints for a perpetual alms. And they, accepting satisfaction from Euan, enjoined upon him fourteen years of penance. Of which fact the witnesses were Cation, Merchiaun, Euan; Cethij, Catman (Saint) Hoitlon Virgo, Cadog, Finian the Irishman, Eudeyrn, reader. Also the famiiia of Cadog and of Illtud are witnesses. Whosoever shall keep it, will be blessed by God, and who­soever shall break it, will be cursed.

§58. It is to be known of us, that Cadog built a church for Macmoil, his disciple, and secured it with a rampart and built an altar in the same, that he might be entertained in it, when he should go to Gwent and return thence, and he sent Macmoil to be prior therein and procurator of all its administration. Moreover Cadog promised the rewards of the kingdom of heaven to all who should increase the possessions of the same church with lands or monies or alms. The witnesses of this are Cadog and his clergy, Pachan, Detiu, Boduan. Whosoever shall keep it, is blessed by God, and, whosoever shall break it will be cursed by the Lord. Amen.

§59. It is to be well known that Gualluuir gave to God and to saint Cadog the land of Pencarnov for his soul for ever until the day ofjudgement. Guallutiir also willed this township to Iudnou his son, that he and his heirs might serve the familia of Cadog with the produce of this land in addition to themselves. The census of this land is nine modii of beer, bread and flesh with honey. Nay, wherever the clergy of Cadog may choose to eat or to drink, to wit, in Basseleg or in Pencarnov, the aforesaid Iudnou will bring to them the food and drink which we have before mentioned. Of this pact the witnesses are Paul, abbot of Nantcarfan, Gwenlioui, his brother, Thuiuc, Canapoi, Tanet, Hierbrith, Merhitr, Concun. Whosoever shall keep it, God will keep him, and, who shall break it, will be cursed by the Lord. Amen.

§60. It is to be noted, that Retone gave to God and to saint Cadog a half part of land by Caerleon to be possessed by perpetual right, which belonged to him by hereditary right. Yet because at that time it had devolved to Herbic, he bought the same from him, and gave it to God and to saint Cadog. Of which thing the witnesses are Herbic, Curnet, Congale, clergy. Of the laity, Guor­net, Guedguon, Guedqui, Sonus, Atderreg. Who shall keep it, may he be blessed; who shall break it, may he be cursed. Amen.

§61. It is to be known, that in the time of Paul, abbot of Nantcarfan, Temit gave land, that is, of the land Crucin, to the altar of saint Cadog for a perpetual possession together with his sons which land should pay annually six modii of beer with bread and flesh to the familia of saint Cadog for ever. The witnesses are: of the clergy, Gnouan, Matganoj, Son, Brenic, Elionoe, Pill reader; and of the laity, Cungrat, Guedhoc, Eliunui, Rimogeat, Branoc, Cunhape. Whosoever shall preserve this offering, God preserve him, and who shall take it away, God will break him.

§62. It is to be known, that king Morcant in hunting came up to the bank of the river Nadhauon and set a hawk on a duck, and both together the hawk and the duck passed over the river in flight. And suddenly an eagle came from the shore of the sea to seize the hawk. Which when king Marcant saw, he was very grieved. But a foster-son of the king, Guengarth by name, coming quickly on horseback with shield and sword and lance threw himself into the river, and with no little boldness snatched away the hawk from the grasp of the eagle, and likewise courteously brought the hawk with the duck to the hand of king Morcant, and by so doing pleased him not a little. Wherefore Morcant said to Guengarth, ‘Lo, I give to thee the township Cadroc, in hereditary right, having a length from the fort Trotguid as far as the river Nadauan and a breadth from the well of Guengarth to the other well, Guengarth.’ On the same day Morcant and Guengarth went to a certain territory of Cadog, and Guengarth gave to God and to saint Cadog the census of the aforesaid township, Cadroc, for his soul and for the soul of king Morcant, namely, every year twelve modii of beer and a sextarius of honey and also the bread and flesh due. Moreover the same Guengarth gave for his soul to Conmogoy his gilded sword, Hipiclaur, which had the worth of seventy cows. Wherefore Conmogoy consulted Guengard to the end he might give that sword to Morcant, that he might confirm the donation of Guengard respecting the pagus Catroc, which also he did. By which thing Morcant had the aforesaid donation ratified, and he corroborated it in writing on the hand of Sulien, that it should be in that way free and quit from thenceforth from all secular service, but altogether subject to the service of God and saint Cadog. Of this thing the witnesses are, Morcant for himself, that there should be no procurator of this territory, except Guengarth and his heirs. Of the clergy, Sulien, Conmogoi, Danoc, Guorguethen, Legan, Elgnou. Of the laity, Guingueri, Jacob, Boduan, Elguan, Gurhitr, Cuncuan. Whosoever shall keep it, will be blessed, and who shall infringe it, will be cursed by God and by Cadog. Amen.

§63. May it be known to all in accordance with the changeableness of times and of the successions of the kings of this world, that Elli, disciple of the blessed Cadog, having been diligently educated by him from an early age and eminently instructed in sacred literature, was the dearest to him of all his disciples. And Elli declared, saying, ‘Lo, I have built a church and houses in the name of the Lord, and I and all my successors of the familia of Cadog will be obedient, subject, and kindly disposed to the familia of Cadog.’ And Elli gave to the aforesaid familia by a perpetual pensio every year provisions for three nights in the summer and as many in the winter with giving of thanks and rejoicing, prayers and spiritual hymns. Moreover in changing the administrator of the same church the abbot of the cenobium of Cadog will always be president and leader. But if it should happen, that Cadog and his successors with their dependents should diminish, let two oxen be given them in recognition of subjection and fellowship. Wherefore assembling at the monastery of Elli, they confirmed this agreement with the kiss of peace in the sight of Elli near the cross, which is on the road known to many. Of this thing are witnesses, Cadoc, Elli, Cleophas, Samson, Jacob, Boduan, Conocan Mach. They went each of them to his place from blessing to blessing. Amen.

§64. It is to be known that Terengual gave the land, Lecguoidel, to God and to Cadog, which should pay annually to Cadog and his familia three modii of beer, and bread and flesh, and if by chance beer should be lacking, it should return four modii of wheat or a white cloak. This alms Terengual gave to God and saint Cadog free and quit of all regal and secular service for his soul and for the soul of Morcant. The witnesses thereof are Iacob, prepositus of the altar of Cadog, and his familia; Conmogoi, Conmil, Joseph, Biuuonoi, Catgen, of the familia of Jlltud, witnesses; Marcant, Gualunir, Guedgen, Guengarth. The boundary of this land is from Pull Tenbuib as far as Dirprisc. Whosoever shall keep it, may he be blessed, and who shall violate it will be cursed by God.

§65. May it be known to all, that Guorcinnim bought the township, Reathr, from Mouric for his own inheritance for a sword, the hilt of which gilded was valued as worth twenty-five cows. He also bestowed upon Concenn, the son of Paul, a horse of the worth of four cows and the worth of a vestment of three unciae, and upon Conmor, the son of Concenn a certain ‘best horse’, but also upon Andres, son of Morcant, a sword of the worth of four cows. Also the same gave the worth of four cows to Iudnerth, the son of Mouric, and one ox to Cornouan, his foster-father, and another cow to the procurator of the king, Guengarth. Therefore, after this purchase Mouric and Concen held a written deed on the hand of Guorcinn for a perpetual inheritance for him and his progeny. Guorcinn himself gave this township to the church of saint Cadog in perpetual possession to the day of judgement, and held a written deed of the donation on the hand of Jacob, abbot of Carfan Valley, for the commemoration of this alms in the presence of suitable witnesses, whose names are subscribed. Eudoce, bishop; and Cethig, prepositus of the altar of saint Docgwin; Jacob, prepositus or abbot of the altar of saint Cadog, and his familia with him. Of the familia of Illtud the witnesses are Conmoe, presbyter, Conmil, magister, and Joseph, presbyter, Biuone, Catgen. And of the laity, Mouric and his sons, Andrus, Guedgen [son of] Bramail, Concit son of Ermit, Guorbes son of Berran, Geintoc, Assail, Arcon, Guallimir, Judhol, Matton, Eliud, Hilon, all witnesses on this writing of donation. For the afore­said township, Reathr, belonged to Mesioc by hereditary right, to whom Guorcinnim gave a horse, of the worth of three cows, that he might acquiesce in this concession. Who shall have violated this, will be cursed by God.

§66. It is to be known, that Conbelin gave the land called Lisdin Borrion for the traffic of the heavenly kingdom together with his own body to God and saint Cadog, which should pay him annually six modii of beer with bread and flesh and honey. Conigc is witness, who [held] on his hand [what] Concuun wrote, that is, the written deed.

§67. It is to be made known to posterity, that Guoidnerth gave Lann Catgualader to God and saint Cadog, that it might pay him every year a vessel of three modii of beer with all things due on account of the fratricide of his own brother, Merchiun; and at length he gave the returns to Docgwinn. Of this the witnesses were Berthgwin, bishop, Conmil, Terchan, and his congregation; Sulien, abbot of Nantcarfan, Lumbiu, presbyter, Biuonoi, Jacob, and the congregation of saint Cadog; Saturn, princeps of the altar of Docgwinn; Marcant, Guoidnerth. Whosoever shall keep it, will be blessed. And who shall violate it, will be cursed by God.

§68. It should be made known to those who shall be, on account of the changes of times and the successions of kings, that king Mouric gave for his soul a portion of land, which is called Insule Tuican, and two portions of land, which belonged to Gorbrith and Gassoc and also equally to their sister Sule, respecting which king Mouric held a written deed on the hand of Jacob, abbot of the chair of saint Cadog, that he might make them free and quit of all census, and of every claim, and also of all services except to the familia of saint Cadog. Wherefore after these things Jacob gave a horse to king Mouric, but he bestowed it upon Guodgen son of Brocmail. Of this thing are witnesses, Jacob, abbot, Rumceneu, Catthig, and their priors, Conmogoe, Conmil, Guorgeneu, Beuonoe, Catgen, Hearngen, Crasgell, Outegurn, Guitlon, Sulien, clergy. Of the laity, Mouric for himself alone and for his sons from generation to generation, Guedgen son of Brocmail, Guallunir, Guorcinnim, Guorbes, Morcenev, Morhoen. These are witnesses concerning this agreement, that it may not be dissolved for ever. Then king Mouric confirmed this donation on the altar of saint Cadog in the presence of his magnates. Whosoever shall conserve it, will be blessed, and who shall dissolve it will be cursed by God.

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§69. Of the Blinding of King Maelgwn.
Maelgwn was a great king of the Britons, who ruled the whole of Britannia, from which there was paid to him annually one hundred cows from each pagus with as many calves, of whatever kind he might choose, namely, either males or females, not willingly, but by force. And so the taxgatherers of king Maelgwn came to collect tribute to Gwynlliog, and they seized a very handsome girl, Abalcem by name, daughter of Guiragon, a prefect of saint Cadog, and bore her away with them. At which action the kinsfolk of the girl being indignant, mounted their horses, and blew their horns. All the warlike men of the same community hearing this, arose, and pursuing them, slew three hundred men, one excepted who told the king what things had been done. When he heard this, the king, raging with furious anger, arrived at the place which is called Cruc glas with a great army for the purpose of avenging himself. Also saint Cadog with all the inhabitants of Gwynlliog went forth to meet the king, and descended into the place, where is the well of Brutrov, and he fasted with all who accompanied him. Maelgwn therefore sent his messenger Argantbad to the blessed man, ordering him to render the worth of the men slain at Riucarn, who replied that he would by no means pay the worths, save by the true judgement of God and of men. But the king refused the arbitrament. But that night it was revealed by an angel to the holy man, Moucan, that he should restrain the king from his cruelty, who also declared to the king what had been manifested to him by the angelic oracle. Now he altogether despised his admonitions. For early in the morning the king moved his camp to inflict slaughter, and immediately he was blinded and knew not whither to direct his steps. Therefore he dispatched messengers, namely, Maucan and Argantbad to saint Cadog, informing him what had happened to him, and earnestly entreated that he should deign to visit him, that he might restore to him his lost sight. But the man of God refused, until he should come to confession. Therefore came the king to him, conceding to him all that he should demand of him. Therefore blessed Cadog requested of the king, first, that refuge should be granted him in the community of Gwynlliog from himself and from his posterity like to the refuge of saint David in Vallis Rosina. And so he gave to the blessed Cadog the refuge as he demanded, and granted him the horse and the sword, wherewith he was girt, and also the golden vestments, wherewith he was clad, and received him as his director. For king Maelgwn made an eternal agreement with saint Cadog and his successors, saying, ‘If anyone of my stock shall break this, he will be cursed. Everyone, who shall have been left of my progeny, will assist thy kindred of Gwynlliog as his uterine brother.’ Then king Maelgwn with his nobles, and blessed Cadog with his clergy, blessed all, who shall keep this agree­ment, and, on the contrary, unanimously cursed all who shall not keep it. Therefore the man of God shewed to the king his tradition, that is, four hundred and fifty cows the worth of every noble of his progeny. ‘Whatsoever anyone of my stock of Gwynlliog shall have obtained from the king himself in perpetual inheritance, let it be his without any census. But whosoever from my stock shall buy anything in the region of Glywysing or Gwent outside the boundaries of Gwynlliog, let it be his for a perpetual hereditary right, nevertheless let him pay the price and census.’ The king in his turn declared his pledge to the blessed man, ‘He who shall slay anyone of my kindred, let his land be given to the parents of the slain man without any census, and let his worth be rendered to his children. A stranger who shall have fled to the refuge of Gwynlliog, if anyone shall have killed him, he will pay one hundred cows according to judgement. But if he shall have denied, let him give the oath of sixty men.’ Also saint Cadog gave as the duration of his refuge seven years, seven months, and seven days, and one night’s lodging in the house of every man throughout the whole pagus, and afterwards let him be dismissed from the refuge of Gwynlliog to whatever other place of security he might wish. Again saint Cadog testified, saying, ‘If anyone of my progeny shall be arrested without consent of his chief of kindred, let him dismiss him unhurt together with his substance, but if he is seized with the consent of his chief of kindred, let him be held in custody, until the chief himself shall release him. Also let there be no tribute given to the king by my race, a contribution of cattle excepted after the passing of seven years, and let the chief of kindred reserve for himself a third part, but let him contribute two parts to the king. And if anyone shall hurt a chief of kindred of Gwynlliog, or shall shed his blood, let not the fault be paid for except by land and gold and animals. And whosoever shall pay to the king the worth of the death of anyone of my race, in like manner if he shall be struck, let it be paid to the king. For the men of my race, if they shall be hurt or killed, let a cow be paid with a sheep as the worth of his soul. If anyone of the progeny of the Britons shall be slain in the refuge of Gwynlliog, let the worth of his soul be paid as in his own land. If anyone shall be an exile of the stock of Gwynlliog, let it be paid in the same manner.

And saint Cadog gave commandment to his kinsmen, ‘If your chief of kindred shall break this testament of agreement, cast him aside, and choose another from his kindred who shall keep it. If he cannot be found, choose from another kindred.’

§70. Of the witnesses of saint Cadog.
The witnesses of the agreement of refuge, which blessed Cadog made with king Rhain, his uncle, the son of Brychan, his grand­father, who is mentioned above in the life of the man of God, are here. Of the clergy, David, Cynidr, Eilucld (i.e. Teilo), Illtud, Maeddog, Cannau. Of the laity are witnesses, Gober, Meliat, Cheleni, Chunleith, Chumurth, Aman. Also of the kindred of Cadog are witnesses, Cinmur, Etelic, Luiper, Seru, Poul.

Composed in Cemis, Pembrokeshire, in the 12th C. Found in the British Museum Cotton MS Vespasian A xiv.

Vitae Sanctorum Britanniae et Genealogiae. ed. A. W. Wade-Evans. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1944.

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