The Celtic Literature Collective

Tírechán's Collections Concerning St. Patrick
Book of Armagh (TCD MS 52)

The following written memoranda concerning St. Patrick, were from the mouth or book of Ultan the bishop, by Tirechan, the bishop, his pupil and disciple.

I have found four names given to Patrick, in the book of Ultan, Bishop of Connor. Magonius, which is renowned; Succetus, which is Patrick; Cothirthac, because he served in four houses of the Magi. One of them, whose name was Miliuc Mac Cuboin, a magician, bought him and kept him four years, and subjected him to every slavery, and to double labour, and made him a swine-herd in the mountains and vallies. At this time, an angel of the Lord, named Victor, visited him in his sleep, at the top of the mountain Scirte, near the mountain Miss. The communication of the angel was to this effect.—"Lo! your ship is ready, rise and walk." And he left him and ascended into heaven. Patrick rose up and walked, as the angel of the Lord commanded him.

In the 17th year of his age, he was taken, brought over, and sold in Ireland. In the 22d year of his age, or rather of his labours, he was able to escape. In the other years, as he said, in recruiting his labours, he sailed over the waves, and walked over the country parts, and through vallies, and over mountains, through Gaul, and all Italy, and the islands which are in the Terrene sea.

He was in one of those islands, which is called Aralanensis, thirty years, as was testified to me by Ultan, the bishop. But of what happened to him, as clearly related in his history, these are his latest miracles, which were accomplished after the second year of the reign of Logaire, the son of Neill.

From the passion of Christ to the death of Patrick, there were four hundred and thirty-six years.

Loigare reigned two, or five years, after the death of Patrick. The entire length of his reign is computed by us at thirty-three years. Patrick, indeed, came with the Gauls to the islands of Mac Euchor, the most eastern of which is still called the island of Patrick. With him there were a multitude of holy bishops, presbyters, deacons, exorcists, hostiarii, and readers, as well as their sons, whom he ordained.

He afterwards went up from the sea to the plain of Brieg, at sun-rise, with the blessing of God, and the true sun of wonderful doctrine, the great morning star, he commenced dispelling the dark shades of ignorance in Ireland. The holy bishop arose, and was unremittingly, from time to time, before the altar, in the name of the Lord God the Father, and of the Son, and the Spirit of the holy and merciful Jesus Christ. This is called, in the language of the Scots, Ochen.

He came to the valley of Sesenan, and built there the first church; and having brought his son, named Sesceneus, with him, as bishop, left him there with two foreign boys. One evening, coming to the gate of Ailbina, to a certain good man, he baptized him, and his son, having pleased him. He gave him the name of Benignus, because he gathered the feet of Patrick between his hands and breast, and would not remain with his father and mother, but cried, unless he should be permitted to sleep with Patrick.

In the morning, when was about to depart, having finished his blessing on the father of Benignus, Patrick was ascending his chariot, had one foot in it, and the other on the ground, the boy, Benignus, held fast the foot of Patrick in both hands, and cried out, "Suffer me to go with Patrick, my real father;" and Patrick said, "Baptize him, and raise him into the chariot, for he is the heir of my kingdom." This is Benignus the bishop, successor of Patrick in the Church of Macha.

The number of bishops whom he ordained in Ireland, amounted to four hundred and fifty.

The number of priests we cannot say, because he baptized men every day, and read to them letters and primers; and of the rest he made priests, for they received baptism at a proper and sedate age.

Of the Bishops.
Benignus, Bronus, Sachellus, Cathiacus, Carthacus, Cartenus, Connanus, Fintranus, Siggeus, OEternus, Sencaticus, Olcanus, Iborus, Ordius, Nazarius, Miserneus, Senachus, Secundinus, Gozachus, Camulacus, Auxilius, Victorious, Bressialus, Feccus, Menathus, Cennannus, Nazarus, Melus, Maceleus, Mactaleus, Culeneus, Asacus, Bitheus, Falertus, Sesceneus, Muirethchus, Temoreris, who built the holy church Cairce, which the family Clonoaviss held; Daigneus, Justianus, Mac Hii Daimene, Oloanus, Domnallus, and very many others.

Of the Priests.
Anicius, Brocidius, Amirgenus, Lommanus, Catideus, Catus, Catanus, Broscus, Ailbeus, Trianus. The names of the three bishops of the Franks consecrated by Patrick, Inaepius, Bernicius, Hernicius.—Sub-deacons, Seman, Semen, Cancen.—Bernicius, the deacon, and Ernicius twelve Franks, with one sister, (or vi. or iii.) — Cassanus, Conlang, Erclung, Brocanus, Roddanus, Brigson, and the other Roddanus, who founded the church; Senem, grandson to Ailellus, because the monks of Patrick held Gengen and Sannuch.

Of the Deacons.
Ivostus, the deacon who baptized Ceranus, the son of the workman of Patrick.—Corinmanus, the deacon, beloved by Patrick, who was in the great church of Airdlicca.—Olcanus, the monk who was in the great cell of Muaida, was made a priest; we know that two exorcists were with him, and the exorcist Losca in the back of Dairi.

In the regions of Tuirtri, were other exorcists. In the plain of Liphi. Of the churches which he founded in the plain of Breg—1st. in Cvlmine.—2d. the church of Cerne, in which Hercuswas buried, who attained a great age.—3d. in the tops of Aisse.—4th. in Bladine.—5th. in Collumbas, in which he ordained Eugenius, the holy bishop.—6th. the church of the son of Laithphi.—7th. Imbrida, in which was the holy and beloved brother of Carthasus—8th. that in Angetbor, in which was Kannanus, the bishop, whom Patrick ordained at the beginning of Easter.

Hiffertus, of the men of Feicc, was the first who burned incense, and carried wax-candles; he first took them home from the hands of Patrick, and caused the holy smoke to ascend into the eyes and nostrils of the gentile-men, and of king Loigaire, and of his magicians; because three brothers opposed him, magicians of the same father—Cruth, Loch, Lethlanii, of the family of Runtir, who made great opposition against Patrick and Benignus. The cloak of the magician was burned round Benignus, and reduced to ashes; but the pious youth was preserved safe by the faith of God, in the sight of the king, of the people, and of the magicians; but the cloak of Benignus, the disciple of Patrick, being fixed steady round the magician, he was set on fire in the midst of them, and was consumed. Patrick said, "In this hour, ail the gentile faith in Ireland is consumed" And Patrick lifted up his hands to God, about the magician Loch Lethetts, and said, "O Lord, cast away from me this dog, who barks at thee to thy face, and let him die" and they all saw the magician raised up through the shades of night even to the heavens, but his dead body, glued together, mixed with hail and snow, and ignited sparks, returned to the earth, and fell before the faces of all; and became petrified, and remains a stone in the south-eastern coasts, even to the present day, and I beheld it with my own eyes.

On Sunday, he came to Taltena, where Agon was king, to Coirpriticus, the son of Neill, who wished to slay him, and flogged his servants in the river Sele, which act of Coirpriticus was told Patrick, who called him an enemy of God, and said to him "Thy seed shall serve the seed of thy brothers, and there shall not be a krng of thy seea for ever, and there shall never be great fish hereafter in the river Sele."

Soon after he came to the house of Conallus, the son of Neill, which stood in the place where at this day, is the church of the great Patrick; and he received him with joy, and was baptized, and Patrick confirmed his throne for ever, and said to him, "The seed of thy brothers shall serve thy seed for ever, but you and your sons, and your son's sons, ought to deal mercifully unto my sons and successors, who faithfully believe for ever;" and he ordained that the length of the church of the God of Patrick should be sixty feet, and Patrick said, "If the church be lessened, thy reign shall not be long, nor firmly established"

Easter Sunday being past, he departed to the ford Mola, (Broon) and there founded a church, in which he left three brethren with one sister; and these are their names Cathaeceus, Cathurus, Catneus, and their sister Catnea; who milked the wild does, as old people have told me.

And he went again to the city of Temoria to Loigaire, the son of Neill, because with him he had ratifted a league, that he should not be slain while he was king. But he would not believe, though spoken to, for he said, Neill, my father suffered me not to believe, but ordered, that I should be buried in the tops of Temoria, like men standing up in war, for the gentiles are accustomed to be entombed armed, with their weapons ready, face to face, in which manner they remain among the magicians, even to the day of Erdatha—that is, to the day of the Lord—Ithe, son of Neill, the son of Dunlinge of Immaiften, in the plain of Liphi, hated him for such harshness as this.

Soon after, he founded the church of Icarrie Dagri,and another church Immruig Thuaithe; and he wrote letters to Cerpanus. And having entered into the royal palace, they did not rise up before him, except Hercus, the layman, and he said to him, "Why have you only arisen to honour my God in my person?" And Hercus said to him, "I know not why, but by God's power, ignited sparks ascended from your lips to mine" The Saint also said to him, "If you will be baptized in the Lord, you shall receive what I have power to give you." He answered, "I will receive." And they came to the fountain, which is called in the Scottish tongue Loigles, but with us the calf of cities. And having opened the book and baptized Hercus, he heard men behind his back, deriding him for that which he was doing, because they knew not what he did. And he baptized many thousand men on that day. Among their opinions of baptism, he heard the following:—Behold, two noblemen were discoursing behind him, and said one to another, "What thou sayest is true, it was foretold from the circle of the year which has passed by, that you would come hither in those days;" and he said, "Tell me your name, I entreat you, and that of your father and of your country, and of your house and residence." He answering, said, "I am the son of Amolngid, the son of Fechrach, the son of Echach, from the western country, from the plain of Donmon, and from the wood of Fochloth." And when he heard the name of his father and the wood Fochloth, he rejoiced greatly, and said to him, "Endeus, the son of Amolngid, I will go with you if I live, because the Lord commanded me that I should go." And Endeus said, "You shall not go with me, lest we be both slain." The Saint then said, "You shall never arrive at your country, unless I shall go with you, and you shall not have eternal life, because you came here on my account, like Joseph before the children of Israel" But Endeus said to Patrick, "Do you baptize my son, because he is of tender age, but I and my brethren cannot believe you, until we come to our own people, lest those people laugh at us." Conallus was accordingly baptized, and Patrick gave him his benediction, and held his hand, and gave him to Cathiacus the bishop, and he brought him up, and Ca- thiacus taught him, and Mucneus, the brother of Cathiacus, the bishop, whose remains are in the great church of Patrick, in the wood of Fochloth. On this account Cathiacus entrusted his island to Conallus, and it remains in that family even to the present day, because he was a layman after the death of Saint Cathiacus.

The six sons of Amolngid sought a decision of their cause before the face of Loigaire, and Endeus was one of them; and his son was of tender age, and Patrick was appealed to before them, and investigated their title of heirship. And Loigaire and Patrick adjudged, that they should divide the inheritance into seven parts. But Endeus said, "I offer my son and my portion of the inheritance to the God of Patrick, and to Patrick himself; and on this account, some say, we are the servants of Patrick, even to the present day.

And they formed a covenant, through the mediation of Loigaire, the son of Neill, Patrick and the sons of Amolngid, the army of laymen, and saints, with the holy bishops; and they entered upon their journey to the mountain Egli. And Patrick paid the sum the law ordained for an escort of twelve men, in addition to a donation of silver and gold, that he might be protected from any ill-disposed person, who should impede or injure them on their journey across Ireland. Because necessity obliged them to pass through the wood of FocMoth, before the beginning of the year, on the second Easter, because of the children exclaiming with great clamour, He heard them in their mothers' womb saying, "Come, Saint Patrick, save us."

He founded a church at the ford Segi, another church at Cinnena Sancta, on the ford of Carnoi Imboind, another on Coirp Raithe, and another upon the mound of Dall Bronig, because the bishop, the son of Cartin, the maternal uncle of Saint Bridget, possessed it. He founded another in the plain of Echredd, another m the plam of Taideri, which is called Cellbile, in the family of Scirest; another in the plain of Echnach, in which was Cassanus the priest; another in Singitibm; another in the plain of Bili, near the ford of Capitis Cants; another in Capite Carmelli, in the plain of Teloch, in which Saint Bridget took the veil, at the hands of the son of Caille.

In Huisniuch Midi, he remained near the rock of Coithrigi, where some of his foreigners were slain by the son of Fechach, the son of Neill, whom Patrick cursed, saying, "There shall not be a king of your line, but you shall serve the seed of your brethren." He founded another church in the head of Airt, in the regions of Roide, in which he placed an altar of stone, and another at Hicuil Carre. And he came through the river Ethne to the two Tethbrias; and ordained Melus bishop, and founded the church of Bili, and ordained Gosactus, the son of Milcon Mac Cubooin, whom he educated in his seven years slavery. And sending Camulacus, of the Commiensium, to the plain of Cuini, and pointed out to him with his finger the situation of the church of Raithin, from the summit of Graneret.

And he came to the plain of Rein, and ordained Bruscus priest, and founded for him a church; he thus spoke wonderfully, after his death, to another saint who was in the island of the family of Cotirbi, "You are blest, whilst you have your son, but I am grieved because my death has left me alone in a church in a desart, in a church forsaken and vacated; for the priests do not associate near me at night, and visions arise to my imagination."

On the third day, the Saint arose and took a ring, an earthen vessel, and a spade, and dug up the mound of the grave, and took away the bones of Saint Bruscus with him, to the island where they still remain.

But Patrick sent Methbrain to the hill of Slecht, the barbarian neighbour of Patrick, who was speaking wonderful truths by God's assistance, And Patrick came to the channel of Sinona, to the place where his charioteer Boidmalus, died and was buried, for which reason it is called Cail Boidmail, even to the present day, and it was consecrated by Patrick.

The first book ends in the country of the posterity of Neill. The second begins and concludes in the country of Connacht.

All which I have written from the beginning of this book, ye know, because they were performed in your country, except a few things which I have discovered as the fruits of my labour, from many old people, and from Ultanus himself, the bishop of Connor, who brought me up and first informed me. But my heart reflects within me, concerning the love of Patrick, because I see the disturbers, builders, predatory chiefs, and soldiers of Ireland, whom I hate, possessing Patrick's patrimony; for they took away from him what was his, and they are afraid, if the successor of Patrick should again demand his patrimony, they should be compelled to restore him nearly the whole island—because God gave him

  1. The whole island; with its inhabitants, by the angel of the Lord.
  2. And he taught them the law of the Lord.
  3. And baptized them with the baptism of God.
  4. And pointed out the cross of Christ.
  5. And related his resurrection.

But they do not love his family, because it is not lawful to swear against him or upon him. And it is not lawful to raise the club against him, because all the first fruits of the church of Ireland are his; but every thing is sworn by him which is sworn.

Every thing which I have written from the beginning of this book, is in full. But every thing which remains, shall be more concise.

Saint Patrick afterwards came through the channel of the river Sinne, through the ford of the two birds, to the plain of Ai. Two brothers, Calerus and Capitolanuim, the magicians of Loigaire, the son of Neill, who brought up the two daughters of Loigaire, Ethne the fair, and Fedelm Nufa, hearing what had been done, and fearing lest they should imbibe the opinions of the holy man, were very indignant, and caused the darkness of night and thick obscurity to cover the whole plain of Ai. We know not by whose power this happened; but we know that this night was the length of three entire days and nights. And the Saint fasted for three days and three nights, and with one hundred prayers, and constant prostrations, entreated God, the king of kings, and all the magic weight of darkness fled from the plain of Ai. And he returned God thanks. And they came through the channel of the river Sinne, which is called Bandea, to the mount Gradi, in which place he ordained the holy Albeus a priest, for whom he pointed out a wonderful stone altar, in the mountain of the descendants of Ailellus, for he was among the descendants of Ailellus. And he baptized Saint Maneus, whom bishop Bronus, the son of Josus, the servant of God, and the companion of Patrick, ordained. They came to the plain of Glais, and there placed a cell, which is called the great cell, and there he left two bearded monks, Conleng and Ercleng.

He then came to Assicus and Bisius, and to the magicians who were of the race of Corcu chon luain Bono and Ith, brothers; one of whom received Patrick and his saints with joy, and offered him his house.

And he went to Imbliuch Hornon, to whom Patrick said, "Thy seed shall be blessed, and from thy seed shall arise priests of the Lord, and chief men, worthy of my compassion, and of being your heirs." And he placed there Assicus and Betheus, the son of brother Assicus, and Cipia, the mother of Betheus, the bishop.

Assicus, the holy bishop, was brass-worker to Patrick, and made altars and book-cases, which he made in plates, for the honour of Patrick the bishop, and also the three square plates well finished, which I saw—that is to say, the plate for the church of Patrick, in Armagh, and another in the church of Alofind, and the third in the great church of Saul, beyond the altar of Saint Felart, the bishop.

Assicus fled to the northern country, to the stony mountain, and was seven years in the island called Rochuil, behind the stony mountain, and his monks went to seek him, and found him in a valley of the mountain engaged in the labours of his trade; his monks withdrew him thence, and he died amongst them, in the desart mountains; and they buried him in Hirraith Chungai Hisertip.

The king gave to him and to his monks, after his death, hay for one hundred cows, with their calves, and for twenty oxen, as a perpetual offering, because he said, "He would not return to the plain of Ai, because they told a falsehood;" his bones are in the plain of Sered Hirraith Chungi, with the monks of Patrick, but the monks of Columb Cille, and of Aird Stratha, contended for him.

Patrick then came from the fountain Alofind addu to Mecham, the grandson of Ailellus, and founded in that place a church, which is called Senella cella Dumiche to this day, where he left the holy men Macet, and Cetgen, and Rodanus, the priest.

And there came with him a daughter of a foreigner, named Mathona, sister of Benignus, the successor of Patrick, who took the veil by the hands of Patrick and Rodanus; she became a recluse, and departed with them through the mountain of the sons of Ailellus, and she founded there a free church in Hitamnuch, and was honoured by God and man; and she had great veneration for the reliques of Saint Rodanus, and his successors were feasted by her.

After this, they placed bishops in the holy church of Hitamnuch, whom the priests of Patrick, that is Bronus and Betheus, ordained. They sought nothing from the family of Dumiche, but friendship alone, but they demanded more from the family of Clono, because, by force, they kept many of the places which belonged to Patrick, after the death of the last possessors. And then Saint Patrick came to the fountain, which is called Clebach, on the sides of Crochan, opposite the rising sun, and they settled themselves near the fountain; and behold the two daughters of king Loigaire, Ethne, the fair, and Fedelmnufa, came in the morning to bathe after the manner of women, and they found the holy bishop Senodus with Patrick near the fountain. And they were ignorant whence they might be.

Or of what form,

Or of what people,

Or of what country.

But they imagined that they were men of Side, or of the gods of the earth, or phantoms. The girls said to them, "Who are ye, and whence do you come?" And Patrick said to them, "Were it not better you should confess the true God, than to ask our race?"

The eldest daughter said, "Who is God? and where is God? and where is his dwelling? has your God sons and daughters, gold and silver? does he live for ever? is he handsome? has he many sons? are his daughters beautiful and beloved by the men of this world? is he in heaven or on earth?

In the sea,
In the rivers,
In the mountains,
In the vallies;
Tell us his description,
How he can be seen,
How he is to be respected,
How he is to be found,
Whether in youth or age?

But Saint Patrick answering, filled with the holy spirit, said, "Our God is the God of all men, the God of heaven and earth, and of the sea, and of rivers; the God of the sun, and of the moon, and of all the stars; the God of the lofty mountains, and of the lower vallies; God is above the heavens, and in heaven, and under heaven; his habitation is above the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and all things which are therein:

He inspires all things,
He enlivens all things,
He overcomes all things,
He supports all things,
He enlightens the sun.

He strengthens the light of night and our knowledge—he made fountains in dry places, and dry islands in the sea, and he placed the stars for the office of greater lights. He has a son, who is coeternal with himself, nor is the son younger than the father, nor the father older than the son, and the holy spirit breathes in them; the father, son, and holy spirit, are inseparable.

"But I wish that ye were united to the heavenly king, as ye are the daughters of an earthly king." And the girls said, "If with one mouth and heart, we are able to believe the heavenly king, teach us most carefully that we may see him face to face, point him out to us; and we will do as you desire us." And Patrick said, "Do ye believe, that by baptism ye will cast away the sin of your father and mother?" They answer, "We believe." "Do you believe repentance after sin?" "We believe." "Do ye believe the life after death? Do ye believe the resurrection on the day of judgment?" "We do believe." "Do ye believe the unity of the church?" "We believe."

They were then baptized, and he placed a white dress on their heads.

And they requested to see the face of Christ, but the Saint said to them, "Unless ye taste of death, ye cannot see the face of Christ, and unless he receive your sacrifice."

And they answer, "Give us the sacrifice, that we may be able to see his son, our spouse." And they received them for the love of God, and when sleeping in death, they placed them in a little bed, covered with clothes, and they made lamentations.

And he came to the plain of Caeri, and they encamped at Icuil Core, and he founded a church in that place, and baptized many; and went thence to the plain of Foinson, and he found there two brothers, sons of a man named Coiliud, the son of Luchti, the son of Conlaid, Lucteus, and Dorelaid, the latter sent his servant to slay Patrick.

But Lucteus delivered him, to whom Patrick said, "There shall be bishops and priests of your race, but as to the race of your brother, they shall be cursed, and shall fail in a short time; and he left in that place Conanus the priest.

And he departed to the fountain of Stringille, in the deserts, and remained there two Sundays, and departed thence to the plain of Raithin. He then went to the termination of Humail Duachud Fobuir, in which place bishops were ordained. There also, came to him a holy daughter, who took the veil at the hands of Patrick. And he ordained the son of Senachus, her father, and gave him a new name, that is Agnus dei, and made him a bishop.

And he macde prayers to the father, that he should not sin thereafter, and should not be called by his name in that place, and that his own deficiency, arising from old age, should be supplied by the maturity of his son's, Oignus by name, for whom he had written "the father's primer," on the day in which Senachus was ordained; because Patrick consecrated the church in that place, near Mathona, and he said to them, "There shall be good bishops here and their seed shall be blessed for ever in this church," that is, Achad Fobnir, and they accepted the mass of Patrick.

Patrick then proceeded to the mountain of Egli, that he might fast there forty days and forty nights, according to the example of Moses, and Helias, and Christ. And his charioteer, Himuirisce, died at Aigli, that is the plain between the sea and Aigli; and they buried the charioteer naked, and collected stones for his tomb and said, "Let this be so for ever, and let it be visited even to the latest ages." And Patrick went to the summits of the mountain to the top of Crochan Aigli, and remained there forty days and forty nights, and large flocks of birds beset him, and he could not see the earth, or the sky, or the sea, for all the saints of Ireland being passed by, God said, that he would be present to them, "Go up, O holy men! the mountain which o'er tops, and is higher than all the mountains which lie to the west, to bless the people of Ireland, that Patrick may see the fruit of his labour, because the choir of all the Irish saints, came to him to visit their father." And he founded a church in the plain of Humail.

And he came to the regions of Corcutemore, to the fountain of Sini, where he baptized a thousand men, he also founded three churches in Toga.

And he came to the fountain of Find maige, which is called Slan, because it was indicated to him that the magi honoured this fountain, and made donations to it as gifts to God.

The fountain was square, and there was a square stone in the mouth of it, and the water came over the stone, that is, through the interstices, as of the trace of a king; and the unbelievers said, that a certain dead prophet made himself a study, in the water under the rock, that he might whiten his bones, for he feared to be burned with fire; for they worshipped the fountain like a God, which was unlawful in the eyes of Patrick, because of the adoration, for he had a zeal for God—even for the living God.

He said, "It is not true, what ye say, that the king of waters is a fountain;" because they gave to him the name water, not king—and the magicians and the gentiles of that country, and a great multitude beside, were assembled at the fountain. And Patrick said to them, "Raise up the rock, let us see what is underneath, if there are bones or not, for I say unto you, that the bones of the man are not under; but I think there is some gold and silver, appearing through the joinings of the stones; from your wicked sacrifices," and they could not lift the stone.

And Patrick blessed the stone and his servants, and said to the multitude, "Retire apart for a little, that ye may perceive the power of my God, who dwells in the heavens." And he lifted the stone with expert hands from the mouth of the fountain, and he placed it where it now remains, and they found nothing in the fountain but water only, and they believed the supreme God. And there sat down, beside the stone, a little way off, a certain man named Cato, whom Patrick blessed, and he baptized him, and satd to him, "Thy seed shall be blessed for ever." There was a little cell in Tog, in the country of Corcuteimne, belonging to Patrick—Cainnechus the bishop, a monk of Patrick's, founded it.

And Saint Patrick came through the plains into the countries of Maicc Hercoe Indichuil, and of Aurchuil, and Patrick came to Indichuil, to a tomb of great magnitude, and wonderful length, which his followers found, and which greatly astonished them, it extended 120 feet long. And they said, "We do not believe this affair, that the man was of the length." Patrick answered, and said, "If ye will, ye shall see him." And they said, "We would." And he struck with his staff the stone near his head, and marked the tomb with the sign of the cross and said, * ,* * * (defaced in MS.) * * and the tomb opened, and the huge saint arose quite sound, and said, " It is well, O holy man, thou hast revived me, and in one hour from all my afflictions," * * * * * (defaced in MS.) * * "We cannot wish that you should walk as we do, because the people cannot see your face through fear of you, but believe in God of heaven, and receive the baptism of the Lord, and return not to what you were, and declare to us who you are."

"I am Macc Maicc Cais maic Glais, who one hundred years since this day, was a swineherd of king Lugirrig Hirotie in Galavatine, Flan mace maicc Con, in the kingdom of Coirpri nioth fer" He was baptized, and made confession to God, and became again silent, and was replaced in his tomb.

And he came into the white plain, in the country of the posterity of Maini, and found there the sign of the cross of Christ, in two new sepulchres; and the Saint said from his chariot, "Who is it that is buried here?" and a voice answered from the sepulchre, "Behold! I am a gentile man." The Saint answered, "Why is the holy cross fixed near you?" And he again replied, "Because the man, who is buried beside me, requested his mother to place the sign of the cross near his tomb; a stupid man, by mistake, placed it beside me." And Patrick leaped down from his chariot, and took hold of the cross, and pulled it from the grave of the gentile, and placed it at the head of the baptized man, and ascended into his chariot, and prayed to God in silence. When he said, "Deliver us from evil," his charioteer said to him, "Why did you call the unbaptized gentile?" "Because I mourn that the man should be without baptism; it were better to intreat God to bless him with baptism, and to pour the baptismal water upon the tomb of the deceased." And he did not answer him, for I think that he forsook him, because God did not wish to save him.

Let us return to our history. He came to Pernuadam, and behold the magicians, of the sons of Amolngid, heard that the Saint came into the country, a very great crowd of magicians assembled, with the chief magician, named Recradus, who wished to slay Patrick; and he came to them with nine magicians, clad in white garments, with a magical host. And Patrick, and Endaeus, son of Amolngid, and Conallus, son of Endaeus, saw him at a distance whilst Patrick was baptizing a great multitude, and when Endaus saw him, he rose and snatched up arms to repel the magicians, for they were distant from them on the other side of the water, a thousnd paces; but Patrick sent Conallus, son of Endaeus, to meet the magicians, that they, knowing him, might not slay them. The illustrious youth stood near the magician, and behold Saint Patrick stood up, and raised his left hand to the God of heaven, and cursed the magician, and he fell dead in the midst of his magicians, and the crowd was scattered over the whole plain of Domnon, and he was burned before the face of all for a sign of vengeance, and all the people saw this miracle. He baptized many on that day, and ordained Mucneus, the brother of Cathacus, and gave him seven books of the law, which he left after him to Macc Cerce, the son of Maic Dregin. And he founded a church at the wood of Fockloth, in which are the bones of Saint Mucneus, the bishop, because God said to him, that he should leave the law and ordain priests and deacons in that region. And he blessed Amolgid, the son of Fergussus, the brother of Endaeus, because in his country he had acted virtuously.

And behold a man, came to them, named Macc Dregin, with seven sons, gentiles, and required the baptism of God from Patrick, who blessed him and his sons; and chose one of them, whose name was Macc Ercae, and he wrote lessons for him, and blessed him with the benediction of a father. And the father of the youth said, "I shall be grieved if my son should depart with you." And Patrick said, "It shall not be so, but I will commend him to Bronus, the son of Icnus, and to Olcanus;" he stretched forth his hand, and pointed out to him a place near, in which are his bones, and marked it with his finger, and placed a cross there.

And two girls came to Patrick, and took the veil at his hand, and he blessed for them the place at the wood of Fochloth. And behold, Patrick went up to the land, which is called Foirrgea, of the sons of Amolngid, to divide it among the sons of Amolngid, and he built there a church, of moist earth squared, because wood was not at hand.

And they brought to him a sick woman, having an infant in her womb, and he baptized the child in its mother womb, with the water of baptism, ipsa est aqua communis mulieris; and they buried her in at the head of the church, and upon the grave is the seat of the Saint, in the church, even to the present day. And he built a certain church at Ross, among the family of Caitru, on an island of a bay of the sea.

And he returned to the river Muiade Denectrige, in Bertrigran, and he erected there a stone of the shape of the cross of Christ, and said, "Behold! here shall be found water in the latter days, and it shall be inhabited by me." And he founded a church near the mound of Rigbairt, and he came to Muiriscsain, to Bronus, the son of Icnus, and blessed his son, Mace Rime, afterwards the bishop, and he wrote rules for him and Muircthaco, the bishop, who was at the river Bratho.

And Patrick and Bronus, came to the shore of Authnili, into the territories of Icnus, and with them Ercae, the son of Dregin, at the plain that is Ros Drenige, in which place is the cottage of Bronus, and sitting there a tooth of Patrick fell out, and he gave the tooth to Bronus for a relic.

And he said, behold the sea lays before us, from this place, and ye will return by the river Slicichae to the wood."

And he departed across the mountain of the sons of Ailellus, and he founded churches there, Taemnach, and Ethenach, and Cell Angle, and Cell Senchuoe.

And he departed to the country of Calbrigi Tremaige, and founded a church near Druimleas, and baptized many, and erected and founded a church on the plain of Ailmaige, that is, Domnach Ailmaige, because Patrick remained there three days and three nights.

And he proceeded to the plain of Aine, and built a church there, and returned to Evoi, and to the plain of Cetni.

He cursed the river, which is called Niger Drobaicum; because it afforded sport to the anglers, and they refused to give any fish to the Saint. But he blessed another river, which formerly had no fish.

And he cursed other rivers, that is, the river Oingoe, and Saele, because two of his boys were drowned in them; this was done in commemoration of their virtue.

He also came to the plain of Sereth, across the river, between Esruaid and the sea, and founded the church of Hirraith argi; and he pitched his camp in the plain of Sereth. He found there a certain good man, of the race of Laithron, and baptized him and his infant son with him, who was called Hinu, or Ineus, be cause his father placed him in the church on the hill where he was born, on the road coming down from the mountain with his father; and he baptized the man's son, and wrote him a primer, and blessed him with the benediction of a bishop, who afterwards kept Saint Assicus with his monks in Ard Roissen, that is Hirrath Congi, in the plain of Sereth, in the time of the kings Fergussus and Foihuid.

And he founded a church in the plain of Latrain, and the great church Sier Drommo, which the family of Dairinise possessed, in Doburbur. He advanced to Forburnas, of the sons of Conill, in the plain of Itho, and having founded there a great church, he departed to the plain of Fochuir, and erected a church there. In that place a certain bishop came to him of the race of Corcutheisne, from the cell of Toch, in the country of Temenrigi Iceru, opposite the setting sun, with one sister, and became a monk of Patrick, and their place is with the family of Clono, and the men of that place lamented.

Patrick passed the Shannon three times, and completed seven years in the western quarter, and came from the plain of Tochuir, to Dulo Ocheni, and founded seven churches there. And he came to Ardstrath, and ordained Macc Ercoe, a bishop. He departed to Ardd Eolorgg, and Ailgi, and Lee Benndrigi, and crossed the river Bandoe, and he blessed the place in which is the cell of Cuill Raithin, in Eilniu, in which there was a bishop, and he formed other cells in Eilniu, and proceeded through the river Breas, and stopped in Duin Sebuirgi, on the rock, which is called Patrick's rock to this day. He ordained there Saint Olcanus, a bishop, whom Patrick brought up, and gave him a part of the reliques of Peter and Paul, and of other apostles, and the cloth which kept the reliques, and returned to the plain of Elmi, and he founded many other churches, which the Coindiri possess.

He ascended the mountain of Miss, where, when in slavery, he had educated Gosacht, the son of Milcon Maccuboin, and his two sisters, but taught them secretly, under the injunction of an oath, for fear of the magician. But one night the magician Miluicc saw sparks of fire from the mouth of the foolish Succetus, ascending to the lips of his son, and the whole body of his son was inflamed, and from the mouth of his son, it communicated to that of his sisters. "Why," says he, "O slave! have you done this evil to my son?"

Succetus replied, "Sir, what did you see?" he answered, "The mouth of my son filled with fire, and my son filled the lips of my daughters, and they were all consumed to ashes, and their ashes enlivened many, and the fire issued from their mouths in flakes like the flight of birds, and could not be restrained.

Succetus answered, "Truly, they could not avoid that extraordinary magical appearance, because I put into their mouths the words of my supreme God." And he departed to the mountain Scirte, to the place of the rock, on which he saw an angel of God standing, and the print of his foot remains almost to this day. When he was ascending into heaven, with his feet extended from one mountain to another, he said, "Behold! thy ship is prepared, arise and walk." And the Saint came through Doim, into the country of Tuirtri, to Patrick's hill, and baptized the sons of Tuirlri.

Having left Macha, he came to Maugdorrne, Armagh and ordained Victorious, a bishop of Machia, and founded there a great church; and he proceeded to Loigaire and Conall, the sons of Neill.

But having completed his rounds, he departed, and built a church for Justanus, near to Bile Tortin, which belongs to the family of Ardbreccain, and built another at Hitortena, in the east, where the people of Othig Cerpani were always free.

And he proceeded to the territories of the Leinsterians to Druimm Hurchaille, and built there a house for martyrs, which is so called, it is situated on the great road in a valley, and the rock of Patrick is here by the way side. He departed to the plain of Lifi, and formed there a church, and ordained the boy Auxilius, the exorcist of Patrick, and Esernina, and Mactadeus in the cell of Cuilin. He ordained Feccus Albus, at Slepten, and baptized the sons of Dunlinge, and proceeded through Belut Gabrain, and founded the church of Hirroigniu Martorthige, and baptized the sons of Nioth Truich Iternumice, at the rock of Hicoithrigi Hicassuil.

These are the three prayers of Patrick, as they were delivered to us by the Hibernians, entreating that all should be received on the day of judgment, if we should repent even in the last days of our life.

  1. That he should not be shut up in hell.
  2. That barbarian nations should never have the rule over us.
  3. That no one shall conquer us, that is the Scots, before seven years previous to the day of judgment, because seven years before the judgment we shall be destroyed in the sea, this is the third.

The age of Patrick, as is recorded to us, is computed beneath:

In his seventh year he was baptized.
In his tenth year he was captured.
For four years he suffered slavery.
For thirty years he studied.
For seventy two years he taught.
Sum total of his age one hundred and twenty.

In four points Patrick he resembled Moses:

  1. He heard an angel from a bush on fire.
  2. He fasted forty days and forty nights.
  3. Because he accomplished 120 years in this present life
  4. Where his bones are, no one knows.

Two enemies for twelve days contended for the body of Saint Patrick, and they saw not night for that space of time, but the day was perpetual, and on the twelfth day they came to battle, and the two armies saw the body in a couch between them, and ceased from fighting. Columb cille, instigated by the spirit of the saint, pointed out a burial place for Patrick, where he lies, that is to say, in Sabul Patricii, that is in the church near the sea, (for the eleventh) where is the passage of the martyrs, that is the haven of the man Columb cille, from Britain, and the passage for all the saints of Ireland, on the day of judgment.

In the thirteenth year of Theothosius the emperor, Patrick the bishop, was sent by bishop Celestine, pope of Rome, for the instruction of the Irish, which Celestine was the forty-second bishop of the apostolical see of the city of Rome after Peter.

Palladius the bishop, was the first sent, who is otherwise called Patrick, and suffered martyrdom among the Scots, as the antient saints relate. Then the second Patrick was sent by an angel of God, named Victor, and by pope Celestine, by whose means all Ireland believed, and who baptized almost all the inhabitants.

Saint Patrick ought to be honoured on four accounts by all the monasteries and churches through the whole of Ireland; that is to say,

  1. For the solemnity of his dreams; he should be honoured in the middle of spring for three days and three nights with feasting, beside meat as a sacrifice, as if Patrick himself came during his life.
  2. His offering should be offered up on the same day.
  3. His hymn should be sung for ever.
  4. His Irish psalm should be sung for ever.

Thus, all these four should be held in honour and considered by his monks, for him who founded their church or monastery, and who possess a parish and much ground.

This breviary of the people ends:—
Of the name,
Of the writings,
Of the genealogy,
Of the industry,
Of the childhood,
Of the curses against sinners,
Of the captivities,
Of the virtues,
Of the blessings towards the pious,
Of the Christian slavery,
Of the age of Patrick,

all which he did by the assistance of God, are here brought together, and collected by very learned antients.

Here begin some few things, which were discovered at a later period, and which shall be related in their proper places. They have been collected by the curiosity of his successors, and by diligence and sanctity, which were excited for the honour and praise of God, and for the pleasing memory of Saint Patrick, down to the present day.

But, when Patrick, after his holy voyage had reached Ireland; he left Saint Lommanus, in the harbour of Boindio, to keep his ship for forty days and forty nights, and then remained another forty days in obedience to Patrick.

Then, according to the command of his master, he went up in his ship even to the ford of Trim, against the stream to the gate of the tower of Fedilmedus, the son of Loigaire, the Lord directing him.

But in the morning Foirtchean, the son of Fedelmedus, found Lommanus reciting the gospel, and admiring it, and his doctrine, immediately believed, and water being convenient in that place, he was baptized by Lommanus, in the name of Christ—and remained there with him until his mother came to seek him. She wept in his presence, for she was a Briton; and she believed also, and returned to her house, and related to her husband all that had happened to her and her son. And Fedelmedus, wept at the coming of the priest, for his mother was the only daughter of the king of the Britons, one Scothnoesa. But, Fedelmedus suspected Lommanus, inquiring from him in the British language, to ascertain his faith and family. He answered him, "I am Lommanus, a Briton, and the Christian foster-child of Patrick, the bishop, who was sent by the Lord, to baptize the people of the Irish, and to convert them to the faith of Christ, who sent me hither according to the will of God." And forthwith Fedelmedus believed, with all his family, and he gave as an offering to him and to Saint Patrick, his possessions together with his property, and with all his offspring. All these he gave as an offering to Patrick and Lommanus with Foirtchern his son, even to the day of judgment.

But he passed over to Fedlinoid, across the river Boindeo, and remained in Cloin Lagen, and Lommanus remained with Foirtchean at Trim, until Patrick arrived, and built for them a church twenty-two years before the church of Altimacha was founded.

The progeny of Lommanus, of the Britons, was one son Gollitus. The mother of Patrick was related to Lommanus, as were the following bishops Hiforgnidius, and Lacnircnius.

Broccaid, in Imbluich of the horses, at Ciar rige Connact, Broccanus Imbrechmig, among the posterity of Dorthim Cnugenoc Hicill Dumigluinn in Deisciurt Breg.

The foregoing is all about Patrick's own family, and what relates to his relations, and to his grace and baptism, and doctrine, and concerning the lands, churches, and all the grants or oblations which he acquired for ever.

But after some time setting out, he arrived in the neighbourhood of Lommanus, with his foster-son Foirtchean, to his brother Broccidim, he and his foster-child went to salute his brother—and he commended his holy church to Saint Patrick and to Foirtchean, but Foirtchean refused to possess the inheritance of his father; for he offered it to God and Patrick, until Lommanus said, "You shall not receive my blessing unless you receive the government of my church." But after the death of his master he held the government for three days, until he came to the ford of Trim, and then immediately gave it to Cathlaidus, a foreigner.

These are the ecclesiastical offerings of Fedelmedus, the son of Loigaire, to Saint Patrick, Lommanus, and Foirtchean, that is, the ford of Trim, in the territories of Loigaire Brieg, in the country of Loigaire Midi.

The progeny of Fedelmedus:
Foirtchernus, his son, father of
Aod Magnus, father of
Aod Parvus, father of
Donall, father of
Baitan, father of
Ossan, father of
Cummene, father of

All these were bishops and chiefmen, who venerated Saint Patrick and his successors, but his plebeian progeny is as under:

Fergus, the son of Fedelmith,
Feredach, the son of Fergus,
Cronan, the son of Feredach,
Saran, the son of Cronan,
Failan, the son of Saran,
Failnad, the son of Failan,
Forfailed, the son of Failnad,
Segene, the son of Forfailed,
Sochnassach, the son of Segene.

[The following paragraph dates to 1004]
St. Patrick, when ascending to heaven, commanded all the fruits of his labour, arising both from baptism and alms, to be brought to the apostolic city, which in the Scottish language is called Ardmacha; I found it thus stated in the books of the Scots. I, that is to say Calvus Perennis, wrote this in the sight of Brian, Emperor of the Scots, and what I wrote he confirmed for all kings, with his seal of wax.

Colman the bishop, offered his church of Cluaincain, in Achud, to Patrick, as a votive offering for ever, and he commended him to the holy men, the priests Medb, and Sadb.

The sons of Tiechrach, gave the plain in the north, between Gleori and Ferni, with the slaves therein, as an offering to Patrick for ever.

Likewise, the seven sons of Death, that is, Cluain, Findglais, and Insruth, Culcais, Deruthmar, Culcais, and Cennlocho, faithfully made offerings to God and Saint Patrick.

Also, the sons of Conlaid, offered as an oblation to God and Saint Patrick for ever, eight pondera campi, that is eight heifers of the plain, in their inheritance, that is in Cachindlea, Odibcarnib, even to the mountain of Cairnn.

All these offerings of the kings at Ciarrichi, were made to Patrick for ever.

Saint Patrick foreseeing, through the holy spirit, that his congregations in Kerry, were much dispersed, that is the bishops Sachellus, Brocidius, and Loarnus, and the priests Medb and Emas, he joined them by his blessing as well in the unity of eternal peace, as in one ceremony of faith, under the authority of his successor in the apostolic chair at Altimacha.

Binean, the son of Lugni, the scribe, a priest, and also an achorite, was son of the daughter of Lugaithin Netach, who gave the inheritance he was entitled to, on his mother's side, in which he founded a church consecrated to God, and given as an offering to Patrick.—Saint Patrick marked out for him the site with his staff, and he then first received the body and blood of Christ, and afterwards Binean, received from him the step, (of consecration) and he blessed him and left him after him in his place.

Patrick coming to the territories of Cabrigi, baptized the son of Cairthir and Caichan, when he baptized them the sons of Cairthir and Caichan, offered the fifth part of Caichan to God and Patrick, and the king afterwards confirmed the gift. These are the denominations of the fifth part Coicid, Catchain, Otha glais, Telchae, Berich, Abraidne, Conricc, Forcuisin, Tuilgos, Disleb, Otha glais, Conacolto, Curreirui, and Otha, Crich, Drommoint, Cuglais, Tamlachta, Dublocho, Lagglais, Cugrenlaich, Fotelaront, Timmchell, Nasanto, Casecen, Indacor, Asescumdacor, Ludescert, Lenilafur, Conrici nuocht, Nomomne, Condaircu mor, Condaircumedoin, Condaircu fidas, Condaircumeil, Condruim, Toidached, Laglais, Conrici, Conaclid, Atropert, Flaith, and Aithech Insohuile, Itosuch, lartabuirt, Benthis, Duarb.

Patrick afterwards erected houses in Drumdaro, i. e. Drumlias, where he left his holy disciple Benignus, with seventeen monks. He also gave the veil to the learned Lasaringhen, who survived Benignus sixty years.

The following are the rights and privileges of Fetho-fi, established two years before the death of the two monks of Dromlias, viz.:—That none should inherit in Dromlias, but the descendants of Fetho-fi, they should be good, devout, just and moral, and inclined to enter among the monks of Dromlias, and diligently inclined to observe the works of the people of Patrick there.

Nao and Nai, sons of the brother of Patrick, and Daall, the son of Heucair, whom Patrick left there, gave as an offering Adopart, Teoraleth, Indli, Treathir, to Patrick for ever; and Conderc the son of Daall, offered his son to Patrick.

In the morning Teoralethindli, offered three ---- and his son Mac Rimae, and Patrick baptized them, and built a church in their inheritance, and Coirpre, with them, offered his kingdom to Patrick.

Erniu goes to Cummin, to Ailigh, and to Erniu of Tir Gimmall, and Maine Buachall, and Taimnigh; with those three monks there went into this country Culla and Bratha.

Cummin and Breatan devoted an eighth part of their property with their lands both wood and plain, their meadows, inclosures, and gardens. To Cummin, also belonged half (the profits of) the doors of the church of these inclosures, where gifts were brought, viz.: three ingots (or ounces) of silver, a bar of silver, and a collar, three ounces of old gold of the dishes of their ancestors, half an ounce for their sons, half an ounce for their sheep, and they paid half an ounce for old vases. The congregation of Cummin agreed that Laghagh, son of Maclora, lord of Crimthanne, should have the government, the spiritual superintendance was in Colman, of the Britons. For a cumal of sacred silver was for the payment of the eighth of their proportion.

Patrick and Iserninus were with Germanus, in the city of Olsiodra, and Germanus said to Iserninus, that he should go to preach in Ireland, he was ready to obey even to whatever part he might be sent, except to Ireland.

Germanus said to Patrick, "Will you be obedient?" Patrick said, "Let it be as you wish." Germanus said, "This shall be between us, and Iserninus shall not be able to refuse going to Ireland."

Patrick came to Ireland, but he sent Iserninus to another part, but a contrary wind detained him in the right side of Ireland.

They went afterwards to convert a people of little reputation, named the Criuthrighe, (Picts) and then proceeded until they arrived at Temchuile, where they left one of their holy men. Then to Rathpalaseigh, where they left another, and then they proceeded to Latragh-do-aradh, in Ibh May, where came to him the seven sons of Cathbhoth, to whom they preached, and believing they were baptized, and they went with them to settle under the protection of Enna-Kinsela. Bishop Fizel went with them in a boat apart from the rest. Afterwards Patrick and the seven sons of Dunlang, believed in him. They went to Crimthan, son of Enna Kinsela, and he believed.

Some people sinned by falling into neglect of Patrick, so that Cathbhadh and Iserninus despised them. The sons of Cathbhadh went home, and afterwards they went to meet Patrick and Crimthan at Sciath Patrick.

Going from Gabhain Liffey, by way of Fothart, in this affair of Enna, they came into Leinster; Iserninus and his monks submitted to Patrick, and craved forgiveness. Patrick gave them to bishop Fiech, and to the sons of Cathbhad, who took possession of a portion of the fields of Fothart.

Patrick went from Tara into the territory of Leinster, and met with Dubhthach, son of Lughain, at Donoghmore, who had been requested by Enna Kinsela, to leave one of his disciples, a Leinster man, a man without reproach, of noble family, and free from blemish, and a man with but one wife, as a bishop at Lis Patrick, Dubhthach answered, there is but one I can vouch for on all those points, and that man is Fiach Finn, the Leinster man, who parted from me in Connaught. Whilst they were speaking Fiach Finn approached them.

Dubhthach took Fiach Finn, and presented him to Patrick, and solicited him to confer on him the order of a bishop, which he did accordingly, after having baptized him, and set him up as chief bishop of Leinster, and he gave him a bell, a mitre, a crozier, and a cloak, (pallium) and he left with him seven of his people.

Muchade of Inisfail,
Augustin of Inisbeg,
Paul and

Afterwards he built Domnagh Fiech, and remained there until sixty of his people died. An angel then appeared to Fiech, and said, "You should go to the west, thy resurrection will be at Coolmoy, a place where deer and swine abound, where you should found your churches."

Fiech replied, "I shall obey Patrick, if he commands I shall go, if not, I shall refuse." After Patrick went to Fiech and absolved him, and blessed him and his holy companions. Crimthan gave that house in Slievard to Patrick, who had baptized him.

Saachnall went to visit Patrick in a chariot, and proceeding took him with him, and went accompanied by an angel from Ruan to Manchan, and stopping there three nights, went to Fiech, to establish and consecrate his church, and the angel said, it is given to you, Fiech, from Patrick, as thy infirmities are removed.

Aidus, bishop of Sliebhte, sent his instructions he had made to Segenius at Armagh, who desired him to (alter) change the instructions; but Aldus said, he dedicated his instruction and his people, and his church, to Patrick for ever. Aidus left his instruction with Conchad, who went to Ardmagh, so that Flan Febla gave him his church, and he afterwards died.

Here end a few things which have been written in the Scottish language more accurately, not because I could not write in Latin, but because these stories can be understood with difficulty even in their own Scottish tongue, but if they were related through the Latin language, one would not only be doubtful with respect to their translation, but ignorant also, of what he was reading, or what language he was pronouncing, from the abundance of Scottish names having no corresponding signification (in the Latin).

Scripsi hunc ut librum pulsare conetur
Omnis quicumque legerit ut evadere poena
Ad cselum valeam et ad summi preemia regni
Patricio dominum pulsante habitare peraevum.

Betham, William. Irish Antiquarian Researches. Vol. 2. Dublin: William Curry, Jun. and Co., 1827. p 348-402